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Beneficial Uses of Dredged Sediment

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Case Studies

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Case studies report on the beneficial use of dredged sediment for beneficial uses organized into categories. The case studies were provided by project managers, scientists, and other personnel who have experience with a specific beneficial use of dredged sediment. Some categories have many case studies (e.g., beach nourishment, island habitat, wetland habitat), which demonstrate multiple opportunities for accomplishing this beneficial use, while other categories have fewer case studies because they have limited focus (e.g., aquaculture).

BU Project State Event Sediment Placement Location Energy Project Size Cost Comments Monitoring Partners References
Island habitat Tarpon Cove Restoration Area FL 2019 dredged sediment mechanical dredge approx. 1.2 miles south of the Town of Palm Beach docks 46 acre site 84,650 cubic yards of sediment The Tarpon Cove project area as a section with high wave energy associated with an unrestricted wake zone and good shoreline fishing. These conditions offered an ideal area for island creation to provide wetland habitat, protect the adjacent shoreline, and enhance fisheries utilization. In general, the 46-acre Tarpon Cove project was designed to fill in a deep dredge hole to restore and enhance critical shallow estuarine subtidal vegetation (seagrass) habitat through the capping of muck. Capping the muck and filling the hole will allow for natural recruitment of seagrasses, including Johnson’s seagrass (Halophila johnsonii), a federally threatened species, which occurs near the project area. Palm Beach County, as the permit holder of the Tarpon Cove Restoration Area, is responsible for monitoring the results of each subsequent dredging operation that adds to the overall area of the restoration project. Adaptive management of dredging practices (placement operations, turbidity control, erosion projection, environmental monitoring) remains ongoing through each and every phase of the ongoing project. Florida Inland Navigation District, Palm Beach County, Taylor Engineering, Port of Palm Beach, Orion Marine Construction, Inc.

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Island habitat Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway Islands (N/I) 1930-1940s silt, sand (N/I) adjacent to channel and harbors Wind fetches and wave energies vary; all are affected to some extent by barge and boat wakes Islands range from 0.5 to >100 acres Less than $1.00 per CY Wildlife islands were built using dredged sediment. Most older islands did not have physical protection but the newer islands and CDF's have riprap or some other protective structure. All the AIWW islands were colonized naturally with the exceptions of Core Sound and Barren Island, which had shorelines planted with cordgrass. Few records are available due to the age of most projects. Islands adjacent to the navigation channel from FL to Long Island in Chesapeake Bay and also harbor areas (Savannah, Charleston, Norfolk, Philadelphia, New York). Islands in New Jersey, North Carolina, and Florida were intensively monitored for vegetation and wildlife during the Dredged Material Research Program. Other islands periodically surveyed for waterbird colonies by state agencies, local birding groups, and in a FWS nationwide survey in the early 1980's. National Park Service and Rutgers University has monitored islands in Long Island Sound and vicinities. New England District, North Atlantic Division, South Atlantic Division

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.
Island habitat Gulf Coast Intracoastal Waterway Islands (N/I) 1930-1950s silt, sand (N/I) adjacent to channel and harbors Depends upon location within the waterway; most have some wave and wind actions; all are affected by barge and boat wakes. Sizes of islands range from 0.5 acres to over 100 acres. Less than $1.00 per CY. Wildlife islands were created using dredged sediment. Riprap or well-engineered dikes were used to protect the CDF's but not the older islands. All older islands were colonized naturally. Some additions or newer islands were partially planted. Most islands are so old that records have been lost. Islands throughout Gulf Coast Intracoastal Waterway and in major harbors (e.g., Mobile, Tampa, Galveston). Most islands have not had any monitoring, although over 50 percent in any given year will have 1 or more waterbird colonies on them. In Texas, the Fish-eating Bird Survey collected annual data on all colonies, but does not distinguish dredged sediment or natural islands. Periodic data have been collected in Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida. Extensive Dredged Material Research Program data exists on these bird islands, including vegetation in and out of colonies, feeding information, and nesting populations and relationships. Mississippi Valley Division, South Atlantic Division, Southwestern

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Island habitat Pacific Coast Islands (N/I) 1930-1950s sand, aggregate, volcanic material (N/I) adjacent to channel and harbors long wind fetches; substantial wave energy against islands; river currents; up to 10 ft tides range from 2 to >200 acres Less than $1.00 per CY Wildlife islands created using dredged sediment. Natural colonization occurred in all cases except Miller Sands Island and Jetty Island. Limited information due to age of project. From San Diego Harbor, CA, to Everett Harbor, WA, along navigation channels, namely Columbia and Snake Rivers and the Sacramento/San Joaquin Rivers Islands in Oregon and Washington identified, researched, and evaluated during the Dredged Material Research Program. Those islands with waterbird colonies were intensively monitored for vegetation utilization and bird populations. Northwestern Division, South Pacific Division

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Wetland habitat Port of Los Angeles Channel Deepening Project CA 2002-2005 silt, sand, mudstone Hydraulic, split-hull barge San Pedro Bay Pacific Ocean 8,000,000 cubic yards (N/I) The project deepened the main channel at the Port of Los Angeles from -48' MLLW to -53' MLLW. All dredged sediment used in fills with no sediments going to ocean disposal sites. Created shallow water habitat and eelgrass beds as mitigation; construction of land for use as commercial berths. Monitoring of the eelgrass bed for five years after transplant. Los Angeles District

USACE & Port of Los Angeles. (2000). Port of Los Angeles Channel Deepening Project Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report. ,

USACE. (2002). Upper Newport Bay Ecosystem Restoration Project Final Enviro
Capping Port of Los Beach Channel Deepening Project CA 2002 silt, sand Hydraulic, split-hull barge San Pedro Bay Pacific Ocean 5.6 million cubic yards total, approximately 120,000 cubic yards used for Palos Verdes Shelf Pilot Capping Project (N/I) The project deepened the Entrance Channel at the Port of Long Beach -76' MLLW. A portion of the dredged sediments was provided to the USEPA for use in the Palos Verdes Pilot Capping Project. None associated with the Port of Long Beach Channel Deepening Project. Los Angeles District

USACE & Port of Long Beach. (1995). Port of Long Beach Main Channel Deepening Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report.
Capping Palos Verdes Shelf Pilot Capping Project CA 2001 silt, sand Hydraulic, split-hull barge Palos Verdes Shelf Pacific Ocean 135,000 cubic yards (N/I) This was a project conducted for the USEPA, Office of Superfund. The purpose of the project was to test the ability to cap contaminated sediments in place as a potential cleanup action for a listed Superfund site. Three "cells" were capped with varying cap thicknesses, sediment types, and placement methods. Monitoring of sediment placement San Francisco District

USACE. (2002). Field Pilot Study of In Situ Capping of Palos Verdes Shelf Contaminated Sediments. ERDC TR-02-5, U.S. Army ERDC., Vicksburg, MS.
Island habitat Upper Newport Bay Ecosystem Restoration Project CA 2004 Silt, sand, mud Hydraulic, split-hull barge Newport Bay Pacific Ocean 2.3 million cubic yards, 752 acr (N/I) Ecosystem restoration project; dredge deepened siltation basin; portion of dredged sediment used to relocate a California least tern nesting island; beach nourishment via nearshore placement also occurred A long-term monitoring program is being developed for the overall project that will include monitoring of the beneficial uses Los Angeles District

USACE. (2000). Beneficial uses of dredged material.
Nearshore placement Silver Strand CA 1988-1989 sand Hopper dredge near Silver Strand Park and San Diego Harbor In the South California Bight and open to the Pacific Ocean Volume: 144,000 cy; Length: 1,200 ft; Width: 590 ft; Thickness: 6.5 ft; Side Slopes: 1V on 23H inshore, 1V on 18H offshore; Plan View: Rectangular; Water Depth: 20 ft (N/I) The berm was constructed of maintenance sediment from San Diego harbor. Monitoring of the berm showed that approximately 1 year after placement the nearshore profile had been reworked. Material dispersed into the profile and equilibrium was reached. At the end of one year, the volume of sediment contained within the survey area, accounting for seasonal changes, remained nearly the same as the volume at the time of the first post-construction survey. 230 to 460 m offshore of Silver Strand Park about 10 km southeast of San Diego Harbor Primary parameter measured was bathymetry. Los Angeles District, South Pacific Division

Burke et al. (1991). Nearshore Berms - Update of the United States Experience. Proceedings of the CEDA-PIANC Conference 1991, The Netherlands.
Industrial development Anacortes Site WA (N/I) Sand, clay, grain size fine (N/I) Anacortes (N/I) 26 acres (N/I) This site is for use as an industrial/manufacturing/port. Raw value prior to dredged sediment placement was $2,200/acre. The enhancement value as of 1987 was $15,300/acre. Sediment bearing capacity fair, vegetative support good; depth to foundation strata 25 ft. (N/I) Seattle District

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Washington, D.C.
Wetland habitat Apalachicola Bay Island FL 1974-1976 silt (N/I) Apalachicola Bay Long southerly wind fetch from the Gulf of Mexico < 10 acres Approximately $1.25 per cy for maintenance sediment; island was constructed to have a life expectancy of several dredging cycles. New dredged sediment was placed inside the dike of an older dredged sediment island to create a salt marsh. For protection, the south dike of the island was used as a breakwater, with a breach provided for intertidal flow. The island was planted with smooth cordgrass in the low marsh zone and saltmeadow cordgrass in the higher marsh zone. The island upland was planted in pines and grasses. Much natural colonization occurred in the marsh and in the upland. silt sediment placed within and over a sand sediment island substrate. Island built pre-1974; sediment placed 1975; planted 1976 This site has been monitored since 1974; uses three natural reference marshes for comparisons. Mobile District, South Atlantic Division

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Shore protection Aransas National Wildlife Refuge TX 1993-1994 silty sand, silt (N/I) north of Corpus Christi along the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway Barge and boat wakes; wind fetch and wave energy from San Antonio Bay Several miles of refuge shoreline protected Estimated $1.00 per cy; geotextiles and other soft structures were additional costs (inexpensive) Maintenance dredged sediment was used for stabilization of eroded marsh shoreline. Engineering and bioengineering techniques were coupled with marsh plantings for stabilization. Combinations of geotextiles, concrete/ stones, and bioengineering structures were used. Smooth cordgrass was planted in and around the protective sediment. Aransas National Wildlife Refuge north of Corpus Christi along the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. Pre-construction data were collected by Waterways Experiment Station (WES) and FWS; construction was monitored by WES and Galveston District; post-construction data were collected by WES, Galveston District, and FWS. Galveston District, Southwestern

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.,

Streever. (2000). Spartina alterniflora marshes on dredged material: A critical review of the ongining d
Wetland habitat Armand Bayou TX 1995 (N/I) (N/I) Galveston Bay, Harris County (N/I) 6 acres Primarily funded by private industry and government Vegetation planted 1995. Armand Bayou Site is a 6-acre Spartina alterniflora marsh, which was created in an unvegetated cove by the Galveston Bay Foundation and its partners. Material was dredged from in front of the marsh, and the fill was deposited to create a berm and to raise the elevation behind the berm for planting. The site is also protected from waves by a brush fence. The site is used by a variety of birds and wildlife, and for educational field trips. This was the first attempt in Texas to dredge specifically for marsh creation, not as a byproduct of channel construction. Volunteers planted thousands of stems of cordgrass. (N/I) Galveston Bay Foundation

Streever. (2000). Spartina alterniflora marshes on dredged material: A critical review of the ongining debate over success. Wetlands Ecology and Management 8: 295-316.,

Shafer and Streever. (2000). A comparison of 28 natural and dre
Wetland habitat Harkers Island NC 1987 sand (N/I) Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway near Beaufort wind fetch, limited wave energy Three sites <5 acres each (N/I) Older dredged sediment deposits were used for salt marsh and seagrass creation. The mound was shaved down to intertidal and sub-tidal elevations. The steep banks on each side of the shaved down areas were left in place for side slope protection. Smooth cordgrass and eelgrass were planted. Monitoring by NMFS with assistance from ERDC South Atlantic Division, Wilmington District

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.,

Streever. (2000). Spartina alterniflora marshes on dredged material: A critical review of the ongining d
Wetland habitat Houston Ship Channel TX 1980s, 1995 (N/I) (N/I) Houston Ship Channel (N/I) 220-acre demonstration marsh plus additional marsh and bird island creation (N/I) This project was awarded the 1996 American Association of Port Authorities Environmental Enhancement Award. The Port of Houston Authority and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers constructed a 220-acre demonstration marsh. As a result of this project, valuable information was gained for use in the development and management of future marsh creation projects from dredged sediment from the Houston Ship Channel. The marsh has provided important nesting habitat for terns and skimmers. Galveston District, Port of Houston Authority

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Washington, D.C.
Beach nourishment Long Branch NJ 1948 dredged sediment Hopper Dredge 0.5 miles offshore of Long Branch Open ocean (Atlantic) Volume: 602,000 cy; Length: 3,700 ft; Width: 750 ft; Height: 7 ft; Water Depth: 38 ft (N/I) The mound was intended to provide sand nourishment for the New Jersey beaches, but it became a stable feature with little associated sand transport. beach sediments: 0.16-0.65 mm; dredged sediment: 0.14 - 0.80 mm Parameters measured included sand samples from beach and offshore. Buffalo District, North Atlantic Division

Beach Erosion Board, USACE. (1950). Test of Nourishment of the Shore by Offshore Deposition of Sand. Technical Memorandum No. 17, Long Branch, NJ.,

McLellan. (1990). Nearshore Mound Construction Using Dredged Material. Journal of Coastal R
Wetland habitat Lake of the Woods, Warroad MN 1980s silt, sand (N/I) near Warroad (N/I) 4 acres (N/I) One of 11 wetlands constructed from dredged sediment during the 1970's and 1980's for the purposes of detailed study and investigation. These projects have been evaluated over the past 25 years as to their wetland success. Studies indicate that this site eroded to a point of being completely submerged but it is supporting dense freshmarsh vegetation. St. Paul District

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Washington, D.C.,

Landin. (1997). Current agricultural applications of dredged material in Washington, New Jersey, So
Habitat development Lake Vancouver, Vancouver WA 1970s silt, sand (N/I) an oxbow of the Columbia River, Vancouver (N/I) (N/I) (N/I) 10 years of construction. When Lake Vancouver was restored, the dredged sediment from the lake bottom was used for agricultural enhancement as well as for beach nourishment, island creation, a recreation park, and spillway construction. (N/I) Port of Vancouver, Seattle District

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Wetland habitat Lake Salvador Wetland Development LA 1998-1999 (N/I) hydraulic dredge Lake Salvador (N/I) 114,089 cubic yards were dredged to create 25.8 acres of marsh on two sites. $13,300 per acre Used a small, mobile hydraulic dredge to move sediments from the small inland waterways to nourish and/or rebuild threatened coastal marshes adjacent to those waterways. The Lake Salvador project was designed to create two marsh sites of 12.6 and 13.2 acres and to prevent Lake Salvador from breaching into Baie du Cabanage. The strategic location of the fill areas provided long-term erosion protection to the organic, intermediate marshes on the perimeter of Baie du Cabanage. (N/I) Louisiana Department of Natural Resources

Powers. (2001). Louisiana completes marsh creation demo projects. International Dredging Review 20: 2, 13-15.
Wetland habitat Kenilworth MD 1993 silt, sand (N/I) National Aquatic Gardens, Anacostia River Minimal Estimated 40 acres (N/I) In National Aquatic Gardens off the Anacostia River, a tributary of the Potomac River, in downtown Washington, DC. Dredged sediment was used for wetland restoration. Temporary water-filled geotextile tubes were used to hold back the dredged sediment until consolidation, and hold back the freshwater wide until the project was planted. Sixteen different freshwater marsh species with wildlife food value were planted; none were able to out-compete the seed bank within the dredged sediment, and the site is now dominated by the seed bank species, especially broadleafed cattail. It is also starting to colonize with small willows, cottonwoods, and other woody species, and will ultimately become a floodplain forest. It was once a forest, and shows evidence of returning. Pre-, during, and post-monitoring was conducted either by Baltimore District or by one of its contractors. Some data were collection by the National Park Service which is owner of the site. Baltimore District, North Atlantic Division

Davis and Landin. (1997). Proceedings of the national workshop on geotextile tube applications. Technical Report. TR-WRP-RE-17. U.S. Army ERDC, Vicksburg, MS. PDF
Shore protection Kelly Island DE 1990s silt, sand (N/I) Kelly Island (N/I) (N/I) 200,000 cubic yards of silts, over 1 million cubic yards of sands As part of the Delaware River channel deepening project, Kelly Island, DE, is designated a beneficial use site for dredged sediment placement. The primary project objective is to provide 1 mile of shoreline protection for the southern end of Kelly Island. The project also consists of restoration of 60 acres of wetlands with a sandy beach for horseshoe crab, shorebird, and waterbird habitat. The project also provides partial protection of the Mahon River entrance. USACE, Waterways Experiment Station Baltimore District

Irish and Davis. (1997). Design of sand dike for wetlands and beach restoration at Kelly Island, Delaware. Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997, p. 33.,

Rosati et a
Island habitat Jetty Island WA 1989 sand (N/I) near Everett, Puget Sound Several mile westerly wind fetch, 8+-ft tides, river currents, current movement within Puget Sound. Over 50 acres Estimated $4.00 per CY Adjacent to mouth of Shohomish River and harbor channel in Puget Sound near Everett. Island over 100 years old; wetland built in 1989. Island, marsh, and seagrass habitat developed using dredged sediment. Bulkhead built on channel side of island receiving the river currents but no protection on the main energy side. The original island built in 1891 had natural colonization. The new marsh, mudflat, and upland was planted with tufted hairgrass, slough sedge, dune grasses, eelgrass, and other species. Engineering features used included environmentally engineered protective berm, intertidal saltmarsh, dredge sediment and plantings. Intensive studies were done during the 1970's under the Dredged Material Research Program. Low-level observations and data collection continued until 1985, then intensive monitoring efforts again prior to island addition and marsh planting. Detailed monitoring plan agreed upon by interagency working group, and carried out for Seattle District, Port of Everett, and State of Washington by Pentec Corporation. Highly successful site. Island upland used for day visits with park rangers and nature tours. Much wildlife use. Northwestern Division, Seattle District

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Wetland habitat Mississippi River Gulf Outlet LA 1980s silt, sand (N/I) adjacent to the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet Barge wakes in the MRGO Approximately 100 acres (may be larger) Approximately $2.00 per cy Adjacent to the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet connecting the Mississippi Sound and the Mississippi River. Maintenance dredged sediment was used to restore subsided marsh on one side of the channel. No physical protection or vegetation planting was done. Natural plant colonization occurred within 3-5 years. Very limited. Primarily observational data. Mississippi Valley Division, New Orleans District

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Wetland habitat Pointe Mouillee CDF MI 1976-1983 silt, sand (N/I) Pointe Mouillee Waterfowl Management Area near Flat Rock Strong easterly wind fetch across Lake Erie. 4,600 acres, 900 of which is a confined disposal facility built on and configured to an eroded barrier island Approximately $9.43 per cy; construction costs of CDF with regard to total area protected/restored is $10,500 per acre. Western Lake Erie on the Pointe Mouillee Waterfowl Management Area near Flat Rock. Dredged sediment and structures were used for wetland restoration and shoreline stabilization. Riprap dike, reinforced inside and outside, and cross dikes were used for side protection. Vegetation was via natural colonization. Initial monitoring was done by State of Michigan, Detroit District, EPA, and Waterways Experiment Station (WES). Long-term monitoring was done by WES. Site has a long-term management plan that includes visitor center, nature trails, hiking/biking/jogging, fishing piers, marina, and in-season waterfowl and small game hunting. This site is heavily used by locals and by regional birding clubs. Wildlife use of site is spectacular; marsh is recovering from decades of erosion. Wetlands are intensively managed by Michigan DNR. Detroit District, Great Lakes and Ohio River Division

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Washington, D.C.
Island habitat Mott Island, Columbia River OR 1950s sand (N/I) lower Columbia River (N/I) Several islands of varying sizes (265 total acres) (N/I) Mott, Sand, Rice, and other islands located near Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge and the Julia Butler Hansen Refuge for the Columbian White-Tailed Deer, lower Columbia River. In the 1950's; some added to on a regular basis using maintenance dredged sediment. Monitoring was primarily limited to the 1970's. Extensive studies done on Mott, Sand, and Rice Islands during the USACE Dredged Material Research Program to document vegetation and soil successional changes on manmade islands and their use as habitats. Observations have continued for eagle and other wildlife. The islands appear to be stable, although those with maintenance dredged sediment need to be expanded or new islands built due to 1) heights of presently mounded dredged sediment, and 2) the loss of habitat due to having to put sediment in such confined locations over and over again. Marsh songbird, small mammal, and goose use of the islands. Portland District

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Washington, D.C.
Beach nourishment Morro Bay CA 1990 medium sand, silt Hopper dredge near Morro Bay Open ocean (Pacific Ocean) Volume: 430,315 cy; Length: 2,500 ft; Width: 575 ft; Thickness: 6.5 ft; Plan View: Linear; Water Depth: 36 ft (N/I) The center of the shore-parallel berm is 2.4 km south of the Morro Bay Entrance and 760 m offshore of Morro Bay. The Morro Bay berm was built by the USACE Los Angeles District with maintenance sediment dredged from the Morro Bay entrance channel. Two berms were constructed. The berm south of Morro Bay contained an order of magnitude more sediment than the northern berm. (The data presented is for the southern berm) The intent of the berm was to provide a source of sand for the beaches south of the harbor. Parameters measured included bathymetry, sediment samples, and wave data. Los Angeles District, South Pacific Division

Burke et al. (1991). Nearshore Berms - Update of the United States Experience. Proceedings of the CEDA-PIANC Conference 1991, The Netherlands.
Shore protection Morehead City Nearshore Placement Area NC 1995 beach quality sand (N/I) near west side of Beaufort Inlet (N/I) 1.5 million cubic yards of beach quality sediment had been placed in the placement area as of 1997. Deposits continue annually. (N/I) Nearshore placement site associated with the Morehead City Harbor Project; located on the west side of Beaufort Inlet. Beach quality sediment removed from the entrance channels is deposited within the active littoral system, thereby maintaining the overall littoral sediment budget of the area. This dredged sediment would have otherwise been placed in the Morehead City ocean dredged sediment disposal site that lies seaward of the active littoral zone. The primary purpose of this project is to prevent channel-maintenance-related deflation of the Beaufort Inlet ebb tide delta that has been documented over the last 45 to 50 years. Both physical and biological monitoring are performed over this site to evaluate movement of sediment and effects of sediment placement on fisheries and benthic resources. Wilmington District

Small et al. (1997). Beneficial use of dredged material in nearshore placement areas in North Carolina. Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997, p. 152.
Shore protection Mobile outer mound AL 1988-1990 Dredged sediment Scow south of Dauphin Island Open ocean (Gulf of Mexico) Volume: 14.6 M cy; Length (crest): 9,000 ft; Width (crest): 1,000 ft; Thickness: 20 ft; Side Slopes: 1V:24H to 1V:130H; Water Depth: 35-50 ft (N/I) About 9.3 km south of the eastern end of Dauphin Island. The Mobile Outer Mound was intended to demonstrate the construction of a stable feature which would provide fisheries benefits for the region and wave attenuation benefits for leeward shorelines. Analyses indicated that the feature was stable and was effective at dissipating storm waves. sediments source was capital and maintenance dredged sediments, Mobile Bay channels. Parameters measured include bathymetry, wave measurements, sediment samples, sediment profiling camera surveys, and fisheries studies. Mobile District, South Atlantic Division

Hands and Bradley. (1990). Results of Monitoring the Disposal Berm at Sand Island, Alabama. Technical Report. TR-DRP-90-2. U.S. Army ERDC, Vicksburg, MS. PDF,

Hands. (1991). Wide-Area Monitoring
Beach nourishment Mobile Bay berm AL 1987-1988 silt, sand (N/I) Gulf of Mexico off entrance to Mobile Bay Full wind and wave energies of the Gulf of Mexico Berms several acres each is size; stable berm is 2 miles long and contains several million cubic yards of sediment. Less than $2.00 per cy Dredged sediment was used to construct deepwater and nearshore berms. No physical protection was constructed for the berms. Pre-, during, and post-construction monitoring conducted by Mobile District and Waterways Experiment Station (WES), with EPA and NMFS evaluating each data sample. Deepwater berm was constructed to be stable, to provide storm surge protection. Nearshore berm was constructed to be mobile, to nourish the beaches near the entrance to Mobile Bay. Movement, configuration, fish use, water quality, and other parameters have been monitored. Mobile District, South Atlantic Division

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Wetland habitat Mobile- thin layer placement AL 1988 silty sediment Thin-layer placement Lower Mobile Bay (N/I) Less than 10 acres Estimated $1.00 per cubic yard Thinlayer (not more than 12 inches) placement over a large bay bottom area is intended to minimize impacts on benthos and reduce recovery time. Pre-, during, and post-project monitoring conducted by USACE District Mobile, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. Motile and non-motile organism impacts and recolonization and water quality were monitored. Minimal impacts resulted, and organism levels were at pre-project levels in 6 months. Mobile District

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Wetland habitat Mitchell Energy Corporation Sites TX 1991, 1993 silt, sand (N/I) near Aransas National Wildlife Refuge (N/I) (N/I) (N/I) In an effort to offset loss of whooping crane critical habitat to erosion, creation of marsh habitat from dredged sediment was undertaken near the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge. Four marsh habitats were created, which differed in geomorphology and hydrology. Two cells of wetland habitat were constructed using sediment obtained from a navigation channel and adjoining drilling basin, as well as bay bottom sediment. Two islands of wetland habitat were constructed using sediment obtained from maintenance dredging of the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. These four created marsh habitats were constructed using a variety of levee designs. Post-project monitoring of wetland success and avian utilization has continued. Galveston District, Mitchell Energy Corporation, Texas

Streever. (2000). Spartina alterniflora marshes on dredged material: A critical review of the ongining debate over success. Wetlands Ecology and Management 8: 295-316.,

Shafer and Streever. (2000). A comparison of 28 natural and dre
Recreation Mission Bay, San Diego CA 1980s-1997 sands (N/I) Mission Bay Park, San Diego Minimal wind and wave energies, limited impacts by local boaters and recreationalists. 4,500 acres Costs of dredging part of project and costs of planting eelgrass was less than $5,000 per acre. Mission Bay in San Diego, CA, is a large, several hundred acre recreational complex constructed of dredged sediment. This complex contains Sea World and numerous other recreational attractions. The park is also home to nesting endangered California least terns. Approximately 200 acres of eelgrass have been restored within the waters of Mission Bay Park. The seagrass restoration (eelgrass) was done on dredged sediment substrate. Pre-, during, and post-planting monitoring conducted by the contractor hired to plant the site. Monitoring is continuing to document spread of the original planting of several acres that is now covering most of 200 acres of protected coves and lakes within the Mission Bay Park, which was constructed entirely of dredged sediment. Los Angeles District

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Washington, D.C.
Habitat development Miller Sands Island OR 1974-1976 sand, volcanic material (N/I) near Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge Eight-ft tides, very strong northwest 6-10-mile wind fetch, strong river and flood currents, and high wave energies. 150 acres (upland island), 3-mile-long sand spit, and 23 acre planted marsh. Approximately $1.37 per cy Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge in the lower Columbia River near Astoria. Maintenance dredged sediment was used for intertidal marsh creation, upland restoration, and dune stabilization. No structures for protection were provided. The marsh is protected behind the sand spit, which was stabilized with dune plantings. In the intertidal marsh, eight vegetation species were tested. Dominant plantings were tufted hairgrass, slough sedge, and Lyngbye=s sedge. On sand spit, American beachgrass was used. On upland (old sand dredged sediment island) seed mixture of grasses and legumes were used on prepared, limed, and fertilized, disked site. Pre-, during, and post-construction monitoring conducted by Waterways Experiment station (ERDC), with assistance from Portland District, and their contractors (NMFS, University of Washington, Oregon State University, others). Northwestern Division, Portland District

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Washington, D.C.
Beach nourishment Miami Beach FL 1978 beach quality sand (N/I) Miami Beach (N/I) 5 miles $2.5 million annually In the late 1970's, the infrastructure of Miami's beach was markedly deteriorated. The narrow beach was not attractive to recreational beach users and tourism had declined. After the beach was nourished in 1978, a large increase in beach users provided the economic incentive to restore and completely rejuvenate Miami Beach. Beach attendance after beach restoration almost tripled in 5 years. Foreign tourism alone generates over $2 billion annually. Sediment placed annually at the site since 1978. See reference. Jacksonville District

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Washington, D.C.,

Houston, J.R. (2000). Beach and coastal restoration. World Dredging Mining and Construction, 36, 6-
Wetland habitat Muzzi Marsh CA 1980s silt, sand (N/I) north of Tiburon, San Francisco Bay, Marin County Easterly wind fetch, sometimes has strong wave energies against the shoreline. Over 50 acres Approximately $2.00 per cy (does not include mitigation costs per permit applicant). Dredged sediment was used for salt marsh restoration. To provide intertidal flow, the existing dike from the dredged sediment confinement was breached. Natural colonization with Pacific cordgrass and pickleweed was allowed. Most monitoring has been by the California Coastal Commission; San Francisco District has kept track of this site because it is a mitigation site. The site was an old disposal site that was opened up to intertidal flow. At a later date a tidal channel was dug around the site to introduce water throughout the site. Parts were left as upland and the rest became wetland. The site has nature trails, passive recreation opportunities throughout the site, and is an excellent bird watching spot. San Francisco District, South Pacific Division

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Shore protection Marina Del Rey CA 1990s sandy sediment w/lead, zinc, and copper contaminants barges Marina Del Rey (N/I) 44 geocontainers, each containing an average of 1300 cubic yards of dredged sediment. Contaminated sediment can be removed from the system for prices ranging from $16 to $79 per cubic yard. Field tests were conducted at Marina Del Rey to study the feasibility of filling geocontainers with dredged sediment. The tubes were lined with non-woven polyester geotextile that kept the sediment contaminated with lead, zinc, and copper from escaping. The geocontainers were filled and dumped into an approved underwater area out of harm's way. Test demonstrations using sandy dredged sediment to fill geocontainers. Filled geocontainers were placed in water depths up to 70 feet using split hull bottom dump barges. Conclusions of these tests are: (1) geocontainers cannot be overfilled or they will fail; (2) fabric strength is of critical importance; (3) hopper barges must be clean and in good repair to deploy correctly; and (4) bulking factors of the sediment is of critical importance to successful deployment of tubes. GEOTEC Associates, Inc., Vicksburg, MS, Los Angeles District, TC Mirafi Corporation, Geocontainer Group, Pendergrass, GA

Fowler and Trainer. (1997). Overview of geocontainer projects in the United States. Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.
Wetland habitat Potters Marsh IL 1996 (N/I) (N/I) Pool 13 Upper Mississippi River (N/I) Approximately 32 acres of manageable aquatic and wetland habitat and 38 acre - feet of off - channel, deep water aquatic habitat provided. $3,957,000 (Nov 91); $4,392,270 (Oct 95) Pool 13 Upper Mississippi River Miles 522.5-526.0 Carroll and Whiteside Counties. The primary project objectives were to restore and create fisheries habitat, reduce sediment input, and increase bird habitat. This was accomplished by creating sediment traps, hydraulically dredging backwater channels, potholes, and developed managed marshland and grassland. The dredge sediment was used to create a 32.5 acre marshland within the newly constructed confined placement site, which will provide migratory bird feeding resting areas. (N/I) Rock Island District

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Washington, D.C.,

Cammen et al. (1976). Animal Colonization of Man-Initiated Salt Marshes on Dredge Spoil. Technical
Island habitat Polander Lake MN 2000 sand Hydraulic dredge, pipeline Polander Lake (N/I) 75-acre island complex built in the middle of Polander Lake (1,200-acres) 2.3 million Polander Lake in the Upper Mississippi River immediately above Lock and Dam Pool 5A near Winona. Islands were constructed by the Corp with sediment taken from the Wild's Bend placement site and sediment dredged from Polander Lake. The islands are designed to improve conditions for the growth of aquatic vegetation and provide habitat for wildlife. About 25% of the sediment used in building the islands will be dredged from Plander Lake in a manner designed to improve fish habitat. The Corps turned the islands over to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for management. St. Paul District

Verstegen. (2000). New islands benefit nature, navigation. Engineer Update, US Army Corp of Engineers, 24:13.
Wetland habitat St. Johns River FL 1980s silt, sand (N/I) along St. Johns River near Jacksonville River traffic wakes, river currents, minimal wind fetch, minimal tidal impacts Several hundred acres (N/I) Dredged sediment was used for intertidal marsh creation. Vegetation was via natural plant colonization. Extremely limited data were collected by local and state agencies. Jacksonville District, South Atlantic Division

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Wetland habitat Sonoma Baylands CA 1996-1997 silt (N/I) near the mouth of the Petaluma River minimal Over 100 acres $792,ooo (Feb 92), $871,200 (Oct 95) Adjacent to north San Francisco Bay at the mouth of the Petaluma River. Dredged sediment and structures were used to provide water stability and intertidal elevations for marsh restoration. Structures included dikes and culverts. Some plantings of Pacific cordgrass and Salicornia were done. Much of the area had natural plant colonization. Pre-construction baseline data were collected by State and Corps contractors using Corps design and placement of dredged sediment. Short-term and long-term data were collected by State and Corps. San Francisco District, South Pacific Division

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Wetland habitat Snow's Cut NC 1970s coarse sand (0.5-2.0 mm) (N/I) Cape Fear River and Snow's Cut (N/I) 1-3 acres (N/I) Marsh established by depositing sediment adjacent to a dredged sediment island and then planting the area with Spartina alteniflora seedlings. (N/I) Wilmington District

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Washington, D.C.,

Streever. (2000). Spartina alterniflora marshes on dredged material: A critical review of th
Wetland habitat San Francisco Bay Salt Pond #3 CA 1970s silt (N/I) near mouth of the Alameda Flood Control Channel Long fierce northwesterly wind fetch across the Bay, and 4-5 ft tides. 111 acres Approximately $1.68 per CY (1973 cost including sediment transport, site preparation, and planting). South of Hayward, CA, in South San Francisco Bay, at the mouth of the Alameda Flood Control Channel. Salt pond in existence for decades; marsh project executed 1973-1976. Dredged sediment was used for Salt marsh restoration and salt pond rehabilitation. The existing dike at the site was breached to provide intertidal flow to the marsh. Vegetation planted was Pacific cordgrass and two species of pickleweed. Engineering features include dredged sediment and plantings. This site was considered a demonstration under the Dredged Material Research Program(DMRP), and was not subject to the intensity and level of monitoring other DMRP sites were. Initial monitoring under local contract included only vegetation and birds. Long-term monitoring by Waterways Experiment Station (ERDC) included soils, vegetation, wildlife, physical changes (no fisheries or benthos), and is still on-going. Although less than 10 acres of the site was planted, the entire site colonized in pickleweed. Succession has been rapid, and the site now resembles older typical salt marshes of the Bay because it no longer supports Pacific cordgrass, but is almost entirely pickleweed. The nearby channel has silted in, and has colonized with cordgrass. San Francisco District, South Pacific Division

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Washington, D.C.
Aquatic habitat Slaughter Creek MD 1989 silt, sand (N/I) Slaughter Creek, Chesapeake Bay Long wind fetch and wave energies from all sides. Less than 5 acres. Estimated $1.50 per cy Dredged sediment capped with old oyster cultch was used for oyster reef development. Pre-, during, and post-project monitoring conducted by Baltimore District, Waterways Experiment Station (ERDC), and NMFS. Baltimore District, North Atlantic Division

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Washington, D.C.
Recreation Patriots Point Park SC 1970s silty loam, grain size fine (N/I) Charleston (N/I) 450 acres (182ha) (N/I) The site, formerly known as Hog Island, was used for disposal of maintenance and new channel dredged sediment--primarily mixed sandy silt and clay. The site now known as Patriots Point is used for commercial and recreational purposes containing a museum, marina, golf course, and hotel. Raw value prior to dredged sediment placement was $2/acre. Enhancement value as of 1987 was $17,400/acre. Sediment bearing capacity poor, vegatative support good, depth to foundation strata 60ft (N/I) Charleston District

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Washington, D.C.
Construction Palmyra Cove Demonstration Project NJ 1990s (N/I) (N/I) Palmyra Cove CDF (N/I) (N/I) (N/I) OMR is working with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, the Burlington County Bridge commission, Burlington County Resource Recovery Complex, and Rutgers University to demonstrate beneficial use applications for dredged sediment to be mined from the Palmyra Cove Confined Disposal Facility. Beneficial use applications may include daily and intermediate landfill cover, landfill stabilization, topsoil, cement, ceramics, lightweight aggregate, grading and fill sediment, or road base and embankment sediment. The successful demonstration of beneficial use applications for dredged sediment may then be applied to navigational dredging programs in the New York/New Jersey Harbor and the Delaware River. (N/I) Office of Maritime Resources

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Island habitat Nott Island CT 1975 silt, sand (N/I) Connecticut River (N/I) 25 acres (N/I) Nott Island was built by mixing silty dredged sediment with an existing sandy dredged sediment site, providing soil amendments (lime, fertilizer), and planting with grasses and legumes. This Connecticut River site remains a viable meadow fringed with salt marsh and has never received post-project management. (N/I) New England District

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Washington, D.C.
Construction Ninilchick AK 1995-2000 sand, coarse sand, pea gravel, cobble Pipeline, annually Ninilchick (N/I) (N/I) (N/I) Dredged sediment used on public roads for sanding on snow and ice, for road construction, and beach nourishment. (N/I) Alaska District, State of Alaska Dept. of Public Works, Transportation

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Beach nourishment New River NC 1976 dredged sediment Split-hull dredge southwest of New River Inlet Open ocean (Atlantic Ocean) Volume: 35,000 cy; Length: 850 ft; Width: 350 ft; Thickness: 6 ft; Plan View: Rectangular; Water Depth: 6.5-13 ft (N/I) 1.4 miles southwest of New River Inlet. This particular study, part of an overall test of both the operational effectiveness and sediment dispersal assumptions for a placement operation using a split-hull barge, was designed to address sediment transport, i.e., whether sediment placed in shallow coastal waters seaward of the surf zone will move shoreward into the surf zone and onto the beach in response to natural processes. The goal was to establish technique for by-passing sediments around New River Inlet and for renourishing beaches. The initially uneven crest was smooth immediately by wave activity. The feature migrated landward and interacted with the beach and nearshore profile. native sediment: beach mean, 0.14 mm; overall beach/offshore profile mean, 0.21 mm; placed dredged sediment: composite mean 0.49 mm. Parameters measured include bathymetry, sediment samples, longshore current velocity and direction, breaker height and period, angle of wave approach, wind velocity and direction, aerial photography. South Atlantic Division, Wilmington District

Schwartz and Musialowski. (1977). Nearshore Disposal: Onshore Sediment Transport. Proceedings of the Coastal Sediments 1977 Conference, VA.
Island habitat Barataria Bay Waterway, Grand Terre LA 1996 (N/I) Pipeline, hydraulic cutter-head dredges, and bucket dredges south of New Orleans in Jefferson Parish Grand Terre's long-term erosion rate is one of the highest coastal erosion rates in the state of Louisiana. The island's gulfside erosion rate historically averaged 12.8 ft/yr, while the bayside rate averaged 7.2 ft/yr. The project provides for the placement of approximately 650,000 cubic yards on the land side of West Grand Terre Island to protect approximately 125 acres of existing wetlands and to create approximately 77 additional acres of wetland. The total project costs charged to Section 204 are estimated at $809,000. The non-Federal sponsor is the State of Louisiana Department of Natural Resources. Barataria Bay Waterway, Grand Terre, located south of New Orleans in Jefferson Parish. The Barataria Bay Waterway connects Bayou Barataria with Barataria Bay. This project uses maintenance-dredged sediments to create marsh in shallow areas adjacent to the channel. Eighteen marsh areas have been created ranging from 15 to 133 acres. The 20-year life of this project is expected to create over 445 acres of saline marsh. (N/I) New Orleans District

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Island habitat Barren Island MD 1984-1996 sand (N/I) Chesapeake Bay Low to moderate wind fetch and wave energies Approximately 100 Acres (N/I) Marsh and seabird nesting island created. Earlier marsh planting of smooth cordgrass used to protect marsh shoreline and nesting areas. Oyster shell sediment placed on island crest for nesting terns. Later protection provided by geotextile tubes placed several hundred feet from Barren Island shoreline. Data collected by Baltimore District, ERDC, and Environmental Concern Inc., general observations by FWS, engineering data by ERDC and Nicolon Corporation. Baltimore District, North Atlantic Division

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.,

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of
Mine reclamation Bark Camp Run Demo PA 2000 Manufactured sediment (N/I) Moshannon State Forest, Clearfield County (N/I) 550,000 cubic yards of sediment covering 15 acres (N/I) This is a pilot project by the PA Department of Environmental Protection to determine the feasibility of using dredged sediment to reclaim abandoned surface and underground mines. The New York Harbor was dredged under the direction of the Corps. On shore, the dredged sediment was mixed with alkaline fly ash. Conrail moved the sediment to Bark Camp. At Bark Camp, the contractor unloaded the sediment, added additional fly ash and activators to cause the sediment to set, and placed the mixture into the abandoned surface mines. Manufactured sediment: mixture of dredged sediment, coal ash, and lime kiln dust (N/I) Buffalo District, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection

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Wetland habitat Bayou DuPont LA 2000 (N/I) hydraulic dredge Bayou DuPont, near Barataria Waterway, New Orleans (N/I) 448,725 cubic yards distributed to three marsh sites. Site 1 created 65 acres and Sites 2 and 3 were 95 acres each. An additional 24 acres of existing marsh were benefited. (N/I) Used a small, mobile hydraulic dredge (Dredge Crown Point) to move sediments from the small inland waterways to nourish and/or rebuild threatened coastal marshes adjacent to those waterways. The Bayou DuPont project was designed to create and/or nourish three marsh sites using dredged sediment. (N/I) Louisiana Department of Natural Resources

Powers. (2001). Louisiana completes marsh creation demo projects. International Dredging Review 20: 2, 13-15.
Wetland habitat Bayou La Branche LA 1994 sand pipeline adjacent to the Lower Guide Levee of the Bonnet Carre' Floodway (N/I) Project created approximately 254 acres of intermediate marsh and nourished an additional 87 existing acres. $3,710,000 (The non-federal sponsor, Louisiana Department of Natural Resources, was responsible for 15 percent of the total costs.) Bayou La Branche wetlands in St. Charles Parish; adjacent to the Lower Guide Levee of the Bonnet Carre' Floodway. An example of a beneficial use project implemented using Section 307(a) funding. Sediments pumped from a bar located at the mouth of the Bonnet Carre' Floodway and kept in place with retention dikes. The La Branche Wetlands consist of fresh and intermediate marshes on the south shore of Lake Pontchartrain. In much of the project area, marshes had deteriorated to open water. The proximity of Lake Pontchartrain's sediment source provided an ideal opportunity to restore these deteriorated marshes. Dredged sediments were pumped to a height conducive to marsh development after settlement and compaction. The area was seeded with Japanese millet by airplane. Preliminary indications are that a very high degree of productivity will be achieved in the created marsh. New Orleans District

Muncy et al. (1996). National review of Corps environmental restoration projects. IWR Report 96-R-27, 123.
Aquatic habitat Big Island Mining LA 1998 (N/I) (N/I) Atchafalaya Bay southwest of Morgan City (N/I) 800 acres initially created with an additional 1,300 acres expected over 20 years. (N/I) Atchafalaya Bay southwest of Morgan City, LA; encompasses the shallow bay area to the north and west of Big Island. The project purpose is to restore freshwater and sediment delivery processes to the northwestern portion of the Atchafalaya River delta. The project entailed construction of distibutary channels having a combined length of about 24,000 feet, extending from the Atchafalaya River into the shallow waters west of Big Island. Dredged sediment was placed in a pattern to mimic natural delta lobes and to create conditions conducive to trapping of riverine sediments and deltaic expansion. During construction, some dead shell reefs were dredged and the submerged shell mounds were rapidly used by nesting terns. (N/I) Louisiana Department of Natural Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service

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Wetland habitat Bodkin Island MD 1986, 1996-1997 sand Containment dike of geotextile tubes near Kent Narrows and Chester River in Queen Annes County (N/I) 7.5 acres using 50,000 cubic yards Estimated cost is $1,000,000 for entire 7 acre island construction. Approximately 2 miles off mainland near Kent Narrows and Chester River in Queen Annes County. Bodkin Island historically has both upland nesting areas and brood habitat for large numbers of black duck. The island was reduced from 4.5 acres in 1950 to 0.94 acres in 1986, at which time breakwaters were used for stabilization. In 1996, this 204 project included increasing the total acreage of Bodkin Island to 7.5 acres using 50,000 cubic yards of dredged sediment from the nearby Chester River Federal Navigation Channel. The island was originally designed using riprap protection, but estimates proved too costly. Cost reductions could be realized using geotextile tubing in lieu of riprap. A large geotextile tube was used to create a containment dike around the existing island. A 60-foot-wide protective marsh barrier contained by a small geotextile tube was placed around the larger containment area to provide additional erosion protection. The environmental goal of the project was for restoration of waterfowl habitat and increases in black duck populations. Baseline data collection by ERDC, Baltimore District, Maryland DNR, and FWS (Annapolis office). Island construction monitoring by ERDC and Baltimore District. Post-construction monitoring by District, Maryland DNR, FWS, and Vern Stotts (retired FWS). Baltimore District, North Atlantic Division

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.
Wetland habitat Bolivar Sandbag Marsh TX 1976-1977 sand (N/I) Galveston Bay (N/I) 3 square kilometers (N/I) Dredged sediment used to create Spartina alterniflora salt marsh in Galveston Bay, Texas. Project site used in studies comparing natural and created salt marshes. (N/I) Galveston District

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.,

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of
Wetland habitat Bolivar Peninsula TX 1960s-1980s fine grained sand (N/I) Goat Island, Bolivar Peninsula, Galveston Bay 26 mile northerly wind fetch across Galveston Bay Old Bolivar, 10 acres; New Bolivar, 10 acres; Control Bolivar, 10 acres; three natural reference sites, varying sizes Less than $1 per cy, approximately $2,500 per acre to plant, geotextile dike was additional expense A previously-placed dredged sediment deposit was used to create a salt marsh. Temporary 10 x 4-ft sandbags were filled with dredged sediment to form a dike at the old Bolivar site in 1975; floating tire breakwater, plant rolls, and erosion control mats were used at new Bolivar site in 1980s. Smooth cordgrass in the low marsh zone and saltmeadow cordgrass in the high marsh zone were planted behind temporary breakwaters, although several minor upland plant species were tested in the upper zone at the old Bolivar site in the 1970s. Monitoring has occurred since 1974 on old Bolivar. Old Bolivar was compared to three natural reference marshes. New Bolivar and control Bolivar (where no planting occurred) monitoring initiated in 1980 (six marsh sites in all). Galveston District, Southwestern

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.,

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of
Beach nourishment Brazos-Santiago Pass TX 1987 dredged sediment Hopper dredge north of Brazos-Santiago Pass Open ocean (Gulf of Mexico) Volume: 220,000 cy; Length: 3,500 ft; Width: 1,000 ft; Thickness: 4.0 ft; Plan View: Linear; Water Depth: 26 ft (N/I) 1.5 miles north of Brazos-Santiago Pass; 2,000 ft to 3,000 ft offshore. This area of South Padre Island has a history of erosion with the exception of the extreme southern tip located next to the Brazos-Santiago Pass jetties. The intent for construction of the berm was for berm sediment to migrate to the beach. Surveys indicated landward sediment transport of the berm sediment in the first stormy season (winter). Little transport was noted in the following calm season (summer). It is expected that the berm as a feature would continue to migrate toward shore. Native beach sediment: 2.4-2.62 phi, fine sand; Dredged sediment: 3.08-3.15 phi (very fine sand). Parameters measured include bathymetry. Galveston District, Southwestern

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.
Nearshore placement Breton Island LA 1993 fine grained (0.01 mm) Dustpan dredge; pipeline off southern tip of the Chandelier Island Open ocean (Gulf of Mexico) Volume: 720,000 cy; Length: 3600 ft; Width: 2800 ft; Thickness: 8 ft; Plan View: Ellipsoid; Water Depth: 15 ft (N/I) Breton Island complex, off the southern tip of the Chandelier Island chain near the entrance to the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet. The construction and monitoring of the Breton island berm had two primary objectives. One objective was to document whether a nearshore berm could be constructed with very fine grained sediment using a pipeline dredge. Examination of post-construction surveys and difference plots verified that a significant feature was constructed. The berm exceeded 8 ft (2.4 m) in height. The second objective was to evaluate the stability of the berm. The post-construction surveys showed that the berm height decreased to the point that it was not recognizable as a feature. Parameters measured were bathymetry and periodic sediment sampling. Mississippi Valley Division, New Orleans District

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.,

Williams and Mathies. (1996). Results of the Pilot Berm Monitoring Study at Breton Island, St. Bernard Parish,
Wetland habitat Brown Lake LA (N/I) (N/I) Pipeline (N/I) (N/I) 89 acres; 1,150,000 cubic yards $1,504,000 Brown Lake is located along a reach of the Calcasieu River and Pass that is maintenance dredged on a 3-year cycle. For one cycle only, in 1997, the dredged sediment was placed into confined disposal areas located adjacent to, and on each side of, the ship channel to create marshes in Brown Lake. Marsh creation thus enhances fish and wildlife resources. Pipeline into confined disposal areas. (N/I) Mississippi Valley Division, New Orleans District

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Aquaculture Brownsville DMCA TX 1980s (N/I) (N/I) Brownsville (N/I) Commercial-sized (see reference) (N/I) To demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of aquaculture in dredged sediment containment areas (DMCA) the CE conducted the Containment Area Aquaculture Program (CAAP), in which a commercial-sized aquaculture facility (marine shrimp farm) was built and operated on an active DMCA near Brownsville, Texas. The objectives of the CAAP were to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of containment area aquaculture. (N/I) Engineers Research and Development Center- Containment Area Aquaculture Program, Engineers Research and Development Center

Konikoff et al. (2001). Managing legal and institutional constraints on aquaculture in dredged material containment areas. MS-Alabama Sea Grant Program Publication No. MASGP 011.,

Tatem. (1990). Determination of the chemical suitability of
Wetland habitat Buttermilk Sound GA 1960s-1970s sand (N/I) near mouth of Altamaha River north of Brunswick Minimal Entire island positively influenced by project was over 20 acres; initial project was seven acres. $0.98 per cy; with approximately $2,500 per acre for planting experimental area; site preparation costs were $2,000 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Buttermilk Sound, mouth of Altamaha River north of Brunswick. Island created in 1960's; marsh creation project 1974. Previously deposited maintenance dredged sediment sand smothered the existing salt marsh. This project shaved down the mound to intertidal elevation and planted vegetation to restore the salt marsh. Eight high and low marsh species were planted, including smooth cordgrass, saltmeadow cordgrass, big cordgrass, marsh elder, sea oxeye, saltgrass, other minor species in the test plots. Over time, site was dominated by smooth, big, and saltmeadow cordgrasses typical of surrounding marshes. Long-term data were collected by University of Georgia and Waterways Experiment Station (pre-, during, and post-construction intensive monitoring). Savannah District, South Atlantic Division

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.,

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of
Agriculture Herbert Hoover Dike FL 1990s sand, marl Surface applied and incorporated into substrate Lake Okeechobee (N/I) Greenhouse screening tests and field demonstration plots Field demonstration plots approximately $10,000 Tests were conducted to evaluate the potential beneficial use of dredged sediment from the St. Lucie Estuary as an ingredient to manufactured soil products and as an amendment to depleted, droughty sandy soil on the Herbert Hoover dike system surrounding Lake Okeechobee. Manufactured soil technology was applied in greenhouse screening tests and in a field demonstration. Productive manufactured soil was made and demonstrated by applying organic waste (yardwaste, bagasse, or lake debris plus Class A biosolids or Melaleuca compost). Soil has been evaluated to determine compositions necessary for optimal growth of desirable plant species. Jacksonville District, Engineers Research and Development Center

Lee et al. (1997). The concept for rehabilitation of problem soil dike using manufactured soils. Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997, p. 25.,

Sturgis et al. (1997).
Agriculture Ft. Drum NY 1990s (N/I) (N/I) Ft. Drum (N/I) (N/I) Information unavailable Two soils tested for rehabilitation: 1) infertile housing soil containing glass, pieces of roof shingles, wood fragments, nails, and other soils remaining after demolition of housing are; and 2) soil sparsely vegetated, wind and rainfall-eroded. Greenhouse screening tests were conducted on both types of soils using organic waste sediments and biosolids. Sawdust was blended with each soil along with either reconditioned sewage sludge biosolids or reconditioned dairy cow manure. Ryegrass, tomato, marigold and vinca were grown in various blends to determine the most fertile mixture. The test results indicate that improved plant growth can be obtained through the appropriate blend of ingredients. The next stage of this technology development is a field demonstration. US Army Installation, Ft. Drum, US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab, Engineers Research and Development Center

Palazzo et al. (1997). Manufactured soil concept in the rehabilitation of housing demolition soil and military training land. Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997, pp. 48-49.
Horticulture Hamlet City Lake NC 1990s Lake sediment (N/I) Hamlet (N/I) Feasibility tests of manufactured soil techniques. Not full-scale operation. (N/I) This study evaluated phyto-remediation techniques to decontaminate and produce a soil sediment that could be used to landscape the surrounding lakeshore of Hamlet City Lake. Sediment contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons from Hamlet City Lake was used in this study. Hamlet City Lake sediment mixed w/disposal site sand and horse manure. After 6 months, the petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in blends containing 40-60 percent sand and 10 percent manure were reduced to 70 percent of the original concentration. The resulting soil blend could be used as landscaping soil for shrubs and trees around the lake from which the dredged sediment was removed. Engineers Research and Development Center, Wilmington District

Payonk et al. (1997). Beneficial use of contaminated dredged material from Hamlet City Lake. Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997, p. 69.
Construction Mayport FL 1997, 1999 fine grained bench-scale test bench-scale test (N/I) 10 gallons of dredged sediment for bench-scale tests and 10 cu yd for the field demonstration. $5,000 for bench-scale tests and $85,000 for demonstration. Dredged sediment from US Naval Station, Mayport, FL blended with automobile interior residual fibers, shredded plastic bottles, binders and compressed into blocks in bench-scale tests. The field demonstration compressed blocks from dry dredged sediment excavated from the CDF without other residual waste. Compressed building blocks. Compressed blocks passed ASTM building block specifications. Four hundred fifty compressed blocks were manufactured and placed on pallets for transfer to a future security wall construction site. (none) Jacksonville District

Zeller et al. (1999). Recycling Materials: Eco-Blocks. American Society of Agronomy Abstracts, p13.,

Murray and Associates. (1999). Compressed Blocks from Dredged Material from US Naval Station, Mayport, FL CDF. Contract Report. US Naval
Agriculture Mobile- landfill cover AL 1998 silt-clay mixture (N/I) Blakeley Island CDF (N/I) Laboratory bench-scale tests (5 gallon), Field Demonstration (500,000 cu yd) $2,400 laboratory, Field Demonstration cost unavailable Dried dredged sediment was blended with flyash and proprietary formulations to produce an engineered landfill cover sediment to meet State regulatory specifications. Laboratory tests indicated few additives other than moisture were required to meet specifications. Flyash additions exceeded required specifications. On-site testing was performed by the contractor to verify specifications were met. City of Mobile, AL, Mobile District, Norm Murray & Associates, Engineers Research and Development Center

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Other uses Norfolk VA 2000 sand, silt, clay (N/I) Norfolk (N/I) 10 gallons of dredged sediment $2,000 Dredged sediment samples from a number of beneficial use projects were blended into a gunnite sediment using proprietary formulations to make an artificial stone monument honoring Bill Murden. A gunnite artificial stone monument was made for a plaque honoring Bill Murden. Bill Murden w supporter of beneficial uses of dredged sediment within USACE. (N/I) Norfolk District

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Other uses Saylorville Lake IA 2000 sand (N/I) bench-scale test; winter weather test (N/I) 10 gallons of sandy dredged sediment for bench-scale tests. $2,000 for bench-scale tests Dredged sediment from Saylorville Lake, IA was blended in proprietary formulations in bench-scale tests. Statues and patio stepping stones were successfully made with substituted dredged sediment. Created statues and patio stepping stones with a mixture of dredged sediment, flyash, and other proprietary formulations. Dredged sediment derived products equaled the quality of products without dredged sediment. However, flyash additions reduced quality after two winter periods of weathering. Products were placed outdoors in the weather elements for two complete winter periods. Structural integrity was visually observed and evaluated. Rock Island District

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Other uses Tuscaloosa AL 2000 sand bench-scale test bench-scale test (N/I) 10 gallons of dredged sediment $2,000 Created gunnite artificial rocks and stones from a mixture of dredged sediment and gunnite sediment for a miniature golf construction company. (N/I) Mobile District

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Other uses Wilmington NC 2002 sand bench-scale test bench-scale test (N/I) 10 gallons of dredged sediment $2,000 for bench-scale tests Dredged sediment from Eagle Island CDF was blended in proprietary formulations in bench-scale tests. Statues, water fountain and artificial rocks were successfully manufactured with substituted dredged sediment. (N/I) RSMT, LLC, Wilmington District

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Habitat development Bussey Lake IA 1994-1996 (N/I) (N/I) Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge (N/I) The project provides 15 acres of managed habitat, 35 acres of enhanced habitat at the waterfowl ponds, and 10 acres of island habitat at Willow Island. $3,594,000 Bussey Lake (213-acre backwater) located 2 miles above Lock and Dam 10, Guttenberg, in the Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge. Sedimentation problems result in continued degradation of the lake and eventual loss of the lake fishery. The project included dredging 12,000 linear feet of channels in the lake to rehabilitate fish habitat. Half of the dredged sediment was placed at the Guttenberg Waterfowl Ponds project to create an additional moist soil unit and to improve the operability of the existing ponds. The rest was placed at the Willow Island placement site just downstream of Bussey Lake. Deepening 29 acres of Bussey Lake expanded the available fish habitat and the installation of a gated structure reduced sediment transport into the lake. (N/I) Iowa Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul District, US Fish and Wildlife Service

Muncy et al. (1996). National review of Corps environmental restoration projects. IWR Report 96-R-27, 123.,

USACE St. Paul. (1990). Bussey Lake habitat rehabilitaion and enhancement report, Clayton County, Iowa, Pool 10. Definite project r
Capping Buzzards Bay MA 1980s fine grained thin layer capping Buzzards Bay, New Bedford Harbor (N/I) 1-3 acres (N/I) Issues concerning contaminated sediments involved open ocean thin layer capping of dredged sediment. DAMOS (Disposal Area Monitoring System) New England District

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Washington, D.C.
Habitat development Claremont Channel NJ 1990s (N/I) (N/I) Claremont Channel in Jersey City (N/I) 1.2 million cubic yards total to be used in multiple beneficial uses Varies according to application Approximately 150,000 cubic yards of sediment will be used in a demonstration of the use of PROPAT (shredded auto interiors) to amend dredged sediment for use as fill. 100,000 cubic yards of sediment will be used in a wetland creation project at the eastern end of the channel. 150,000 cubic yards of sediment will be used in the Pennsylvania Mines Reclamation Demonstration. (Dredged sediment is used to produce a cementous grout to seal abandoned Pennsylvania coal mines to reduce acid mine drainage.) The remainder of the 1.2 million cubic yards will be placed at either the Newark Bay Confined Disposal Facility or the Port Liberte golf course. (N/I) Office of Maritime Resources

O'Donnel and Henningson. (1999). The beneficial use of dredged material to mitigate acid mine drainage. Proceedings of the 19th WEDA Conference and 31st Texas A&M University Dredging Seminar, Louisville, KY.
Wetland habitat Clear Creek TX 1997-1998 (N/I) Pipeline Clear Creek in Galveston Bay (N/I) 12 acres of intertidal wetlands; 25,000 cubic yards (N/I) Salt marsh was restored by using dredged sediment to fill a subsided area to the necessary elevation for emergent marsh grasses to grow and thrive. Smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) seeds were distributed by airboat. After seven months, a healthy stand of salt marsh vegetation had been established. This project has been recognized at the local, state and national level. The restored wetland has become a showcase for wetland restoration. This project has received the Houston Corporate Recycling Council's 1999 Award; The 1999 Governor's Award for Environmental Excellence; and the Coastal America Partnership Award. Galveston Bay Estuary Program, Natural Resource Conservation Service, Novus Systems, Inc., Padgett Shoreline, Inc., Reliant Energy, US Fish and Wildlife Service

(None)
Wetland habitat Coffee Island AL 1985 sand (N/I) Mississippi Sound near Bayou le Batre Wind and wave fetches within the Sound and from the GIWW Less than five acres Approximately $1.25 per cy Adjacent to the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway in Mississippi Sound, AL, near Bayou le Batre. Marsh was created on an old dredged sediment island. Bioengineering (plant rolls and erosion control matting) was used for physical protection. Smooth cordgrass was planted on bare sandy shoreline. Planting in 1985. Monitoring included only vegetation. Mobile District, South Atlantic Division

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.
Island habitat Columbia River Islands OR 1950s sand (N/I) lower Columbia River Strong wind and wave energies, 8-ft tides Several islands of varying sizes Information no longer available due to age of projects. Islands located near Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge and Julia Butler Hansen Refuge for the Columbian White-tailed Deer in the lower Columbia River. In the 1950's with some additions of maintenance dredged sediment on a regular basis. Land was created and wildlife habitat was developed using dredged sediment. Vegetation was via natural colonization. No protection was provided from the energy sources. Limited records due to project age. Primarily limited to the 1970's. Extensive studies done on Mott, Sand, and Rice Islands during the Dredged Material Research Program to document vegetation and soil successional changes on manmade islands and their use as habitats. Regular observations of eagle and other wildlife are made on the islands. Northwestern Division, Portland District

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.,

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of
Wetland habitat Commencement Bay WA 1980s-1990s (N/I) (N/I) near mouth of Puyallup River in Puget Sound (N/I) 17 acres subtidal/intertidal habitat (St. Paul Waterway)
24-acre nearshore fill (Sitcum Waterway)
19.5 acres intertidal habitat (Sitcum Waterway)
1.6 acres upland habitat (Sitcum Waterway)
(N/I) Located in Commencement Bay near mouth of Puyallup River in Puget Sound. 1988 (St. Paul Waterway Area Project); 1993 (Sitcum Waterway Project). The St. Paul Waterway Area Project resulted in the creation of 17 acres of shallow subtidal/intertidal habitat on the cap of a confined aquatic disposal site. The Sitcum Waterway Remediation Project created a 24-acre nearshore fill for marine terminal use, and the creation of 19.5 acres of intertidal habitat and 1.6 acres of upland habitat. Both of the project designs depended upon the continuing natural sedimentation process from the Puyallup River to assure future stabilization of the intertidal site. The St. Paul site is located in a high wave environment that causes transport and erosion of the intertidal habitat. The Sitcum Project included a nearshore disposal site for confinement of contaminated sediment. (N/I) Hartman Consulting Corporation, Seattle, Washington, Port of Tacoma, Tacoma, WA, Simpson Tacoma Craft Corporation, Tacoma, WA

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Washington, D.C.,

Hartman et al. (1997). Beneficial uses of dredged contaminated sediments: Two case studies revisit
Island habitat Core Sound Islands NC 1978-1979 sand (N/I) near Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway Both wind fetch and wave energies affect all sides of islands. Over 15 acres Estimated $1.50/cy Seabird nesting islands constructed of maintenance dredged sediment. Smooth cordgrass and saltmeadow cordgrass planted along outer edges of shoreline, where sand was allowed to overtop the sandbags (10 x 4 ft nylon sandbags built to form kidney-shaped configuration) after islands were filled. Sandbags placed to offer protected cove for feeding seabirds and wading birds. Crest of islands purposely kept bare for best nesting substrate. University of North Carolina at Wilmington, North Carolina State University, and Wilmington District monitored wildlife, vegetation, site stability, and other parameters. Local fishermen (or vandals) cut the sandbags on one island after filling, and the island washed away. The other island is stable and thriving. South Atlantic Division, Wilmington District

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.
Island habitat Craney Island CDF VA 1980s silt (N/I) near Norfolk Harbor navigation channel, 36.9090N, 76.3703W River currents from the James River, 3-4 ft tidal range Several hundred acres (N/I) Dredged sediment was used to construct a confined disposal facility (CDF). The CDF constructed was protected with a riprap dike. Vegetation occurred via natural colonization. Natural growth of marsh and upland vegetation occurred. Wildlife habitat was provided. Pre-project engineering monitoring done by Waterways Experiment Station (ERDC) and Norfolk District. No pre-project environmental monitoring was conducted. Post-project monitoring has been almost exclusively engineering; however, wildlife use is occurring on the site, and natural marsh and upland vegetation is growing inside the CDF. Norfolk District, North Atlantic Division

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.
Construction Dillingham AK 2000 sand, silt, clay Hydraulic cutterhead, pipeline, annually Dillingham (N/I) (N/I) (N/I) After the conclusion of the dredging in 1995, the northern half of the eastern dredged sediment site (previously 20 acres) was designated for use as a boat storage and maintenance area. The primary beneficial use of the dredged sediment has been infrastructure development. (N/I) Alaska District, City of Dillingham, AK

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.
Wetland habitat Donlin Island CA 1983 silt, sand (N/I) San Joaquin River near Stockton River currents primarily, minimal barge and boat wakes, weak intertidal influence (Donlin Island is brackish intertidal, Venice Cut is fresh intertidal) 35 acres (both islands) Approximately $1.50 per cy with 1,000,000 cy placed at the two sites (much less cost that other placement options) Maintenance dredged sediment was used for intertidal fresh and brackish marsh restoration on subsided land. No physical protection was constructed. Vegetation was via natural colonization. Long-term monitoring program was set up by the Sacramento District and University of California-Davis, with assistance from Waterways Experiment Station (ERDC). Monitoring was a doctoral dissertation project, and included vegetation, wildlife, fisheries, and other parameters. Sacramento District, South Pacific Division

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.,

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of
Construction Duluth CDF MN 1990s sand (N/I) Duluth (N/I) (N/I) (N/I) Several projects in the USACE Detroit District have utilized dredged sediment in construction or industrial applications; these include fill sediment, dike construction, urban and industrial use parking lots, roads and road sanding. To extend the capacity of the nearly filled CDF, Duluth, Minnesota, a project was developed where dredged sediment was washed with on-site water to wash away the fine sediment leaving clean sand, which is used for various construction and industrial applications. (N/I) Detroit District

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Wetland habitat Eastern Neck National Wildlife Refuge MD 1993 sand (N/I) near Kent Narrows in Chesapeake Bay Long northwesterly wind fetch Approximately 5-10 acres (N/I) Dredged sediment and bioengineering techniques used for wetland restoration. Detached riprap breakwaters and geotextile tubes were used for physical protection. Backfilled sand dredged sediment was planted with smooth cordgrass and saltmeadow cordgrass in 1993 and 1994. Engineering was done by Waterways Experiment Station (ERDC) and Baltimore District; biological monitoring was contracted by ERDC to US Fish and Wildlife Service Annapolis Field Office. Baltimore District, North Atlantic Division

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.,

Davis and Landin. (1997). Proceedings of the national workshop on geotextile tube applications. Technical Repor
Beach nourishment Fire Island NY 1987 sand Split-hulled hopper dredge 1.5 miles west of Fire Island Inlet and 1,200 ft offshore Open Ocean (Atlantic) Volume: 422,500 cy: Length: 7,500 ft; Width: 400 ft; Thickness: 4 ft; Side Slopes: 1V:30H to 1V:100H; Plan View: Linear; Water Depth: 16 ft (N/I) The New York District constructed the dredged sediment berm to provide sediment for the beaches of Fire Island. Sediment transport from the site was evident. While the sediments have not been shown to clearly add to beach volume, they have become part of the active nearshore profile. Parameters measured were bathymetry and position of hopper placements. Buffalo District, North Atlantic Division

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.,

McLellan et al. (1988). Nearshore Placement Techniques for Dredged Material. Proceedings of 21st Annual Dredgin
Wetland habitat Fina la Terre LA 1980s silt, sand (N/I) Terrebonne Parish Negligible except in storm events Management unit is several hundred acres, dredging area is smaller (N/I) Dredged sediment and structures were used to restore an existing marsh that was being impacted by salt water intrusion, subsidence, and erosion. Structures were put in place to keep out salt water that killed the existing marsh vegetation, and to allow water level manipulation. No plantings were done. Vegetation was via natural colonization and succession. Project is privately owned, and is being used as a mitigation bank. Environmental monitoring is an interagency arrangement between the Louisiana DNR, Louisiana State University, the Environmental Protection Agency, the New Orleans District, and the Minerals Management Service. Engineering monitoring was conducted by Waterways Experiment Station in 1992-1993. Mississippi Valley Division, New Orleans District

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.
Island habitat Folly Island SC 1980s silt, sand (N/I) Folly River near Charleston County Park, Charleston Minimal Less than 20 acres Approximately $2.28 per CY Maintenance dredged sediment used for renourishment of bird nesting island. No physical protection was designed for the island. Vegetation was via natural colonization. Engineering monitoring by Charleston District; biological monitoring joint effort of local birders and Charleston District. Dredged sediment was used to protect and expand an existing nesting area and a county park. Charleston District, South Atlantic Division

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.
Island habitat Gaillard Island CDF AL 1980-1981 silt, sand Confined Disposal Facility Two miles into Mobile Bay from Theodore Wave and wind energies buffet all three sides of the island, with long wind fetches and with ship/barge wakes hitting the south and east dikes. The CDF is a triangular-shaped island 1,300 acres in size; the planted marsh, a demonstration project, is 35 acres. Approximately $1.25 per CY Island built 1980-1981. A confined disposal facility built of dredged sediment in Mobile Bay; marsh was planted along the northwest dike. The east and part of the south dikes were riprapped; planting occurred behind floating tire breakwaters on the northwest dike, and using plant rolls and erosion control matting. Smooth cordgrass was planted. Natural colonization behind berms which formed from trapped sediments included saltmeadow cordgrass, saltmarsh bulrush, saltmarsh cattail, American three-square, and a number of other minor species in the marsh zones. The upland was aerially seeded with grasses, then planted with a variety of both exotic and native tree species (Districts choice-only the native species survived). CDF was constructed to have a life expectancy of approximately 40 years. Island was created over bay bottom, but no baseline data were collected on fishes or benthos; seagrasses not present. Island monitoring began in 1981 and included vegetation, wildlife, some fisheries, physical changes. Seabird use of the island has been spectacular, with thousands of pairs of over 20 species of terns, gulls, skimmers, pelicans, stilts, and others nesting on the island in increasing numbers since its construction. Wading bird began occurring in 1988, when vegetation reached successional stages that would support their nests. Mobile District, South Atlantic Division

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.,

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of
Construction Galbraith Golf Course CA 1996-2000 (N/I) (N/I) Oakland (N/I) 6.6 million cubic yards (N/I) This is one of the largest reuse projects on the West Coast. In order to deepen the Port of Oakland to -42 feet, approximately 4.5 million cubic yards of sediment needed to be placed in an upland disposal facility. A large confined disposal facility was created on the footprint of the Galbraith golf course. The course was removed, and slurried dredge sediment from the port was delivered to the site over a 3-year period. Decanted water was discharged to San Francisco Bay. Following treatment and drying in the disposal facility, a new golf course was constructed and is maintained. (N/I) Port of Oakland, San Francisco District

USACE and the Port of Oakland. (1994). Final supplemental environmental impact report/environmental impact statement. Oakland Harbor Deep-Draft Navigational Improvements, SCH91073031.,

USEPA, USACE, SF Bay BCDC, CA State Water Resources Co
Capping Georgia Pacific Log Pond WA 2000 debris in sand-clay-silts Clamshell with cable arm bucket Whatcom Waterway, inner Bellingham Bay, Whatcom County Exposure to Whatcom Waterway, although majority of Log Pond is protected from currents and wave action. There is a net deposition on the site. 5.2 acres (N/I) debris (sheet pile, bulkhead, riprap concrete, and wood) in sand-clay-silts (72% fine grained), overlying silty sands, overlying silty clay glacial outwash (N/I) Washington Department of Ecology

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.
Beach nourishment Bayou des Glaises LA 1995 (N/I) Pipeline Couvillion Road in Moreauville, Avoyelles Parish (N/I) 655 ft of eroded bankline restored $280,000 Along left descending bank of Bayou des Glaises and Couvillion Road in Moreauville, Avoyelles Parish, LA (Sections 19 and 20, Township 1 North, Range 5). Streambank erosion along Bayou des Glaises threatened a 655-foot section of Couvillion Road. The eroded bankline was reconstructed using semicompacted fill and woven geotextile reinforcement, along with stone toe protection. Borrow sediment obtained from the nearby diversion channel's disposal bank was used as fill. (N/I) Mississippi Valley Division, New Orleans District

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Island habitat Great Lakes Islands MI 1950s sand, cobble (N/I) harbors and shipping channels River and lake currents, ship and barge wakes, sometimes strong wind fetches that are causing entire islands to disappear. Varies from 1.0 acres to over 100 acres Estimated $1.00 per CY Islands located in harbors and in shipping channels created to connect rivers (e.g., Detroit River, Sault Saint Marie, Lake St. Clair, and Duluth Harbor). Wildlife habitat was created using dredged sediment. Some island were riprapped, whereas others were not protected. Vegetation was via natural colonization. Most islands are so old that records have been lost. All of the islands have been monitored at least twice during 1976-1977 under the Dredged Material Research Program and again in 1985, for waterbird colony locations and sizes. Vegetation that provides nesting substrate has also been documented. Beyond those data, monitoring has not occurred. Great Lakes and Ohio River Division

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.
Wetland habitat Goglihite WA 1987-1988 sand (N/I) Seattle Low to moderate wind and wave energies Less than five acres (N/I) This project involved salt marsh creation for mitigation (Port of Tacoma). No physical protection was engineers. Vegetation included eelgrass and sedges. An active mitigation monitoring program was conducted by University of Washington with coordination between Seattle District, EPA, state agencies, NMFS, FWS. Northwestern Division, Seattle District

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.
Beach nourishment Grays Harbor WA 1992-1994 fine to coarse grained sediments hopper dredge Grays Harbor, Westport (N/I) Multiple site over several years. Over 2 million cubic yards of dredged sediment from Grays Harbor dredging. See reference and links. (N/I) Offshore and nearshore berms were created in the Half Moon Bay area of Grays Harbor to promote sediment transport and accretion at the South Beach shoreline. Post-project monitoring indicates the berms created from dredged sediment have played a major role in fighting erosion at the harbor entrance and will continue to do so in the future. Seattle District

Sumeri and Nelson. (1997). Uses of dredged material to combat erosion at Westport, Washington. Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997, pp. 154-156.
Beach nourishment Green Bay Harbor, Milwaukee WI 1998 (N/I) Confined Disposal Facility Green Bay Harbor, Milwaukee (N/I) Milwaukee and Green Bay Confined Disposal Facilities (Miller 1998) Milwaukee and Green Bay Confined Disposal Facilities (Miller 1998) Milwaukee and Green Bay Confined Disposal Facilities (Miller 1998) Milwaukee and Green Bay Confined Disposal Facilities (Miller 1998) Detroit District

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.,

Miller. (1998). Confined Disposal Facilities on the Great Lakes. Great Lakes & Ohio River Division USACE.
Beach nourishment Homer AK 2000 sand, gravel Hydraulic cutterhead, pipeline, annually Homer (N/I) (N/I) (N/I) Dredged sediment is used by local interests where needed to maintain the integrity of the spit itself such as by beach nourishment. (N/I) Alaska District, City of Homer, AK

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.
Island habitat Hillsborough Bay CDF FL 1978-1979 sand (N/I) Hillsborough Bay near Tampa Wave energies and wind fetches from all sides of both islands. Total of the two islands: several hundred acres Approximately $11.25 per cy, with 25-year design life of the two islands. Two contained disposal facilities (CDF) islands were built to hold new work and maintenance dredge sediment from Tampa and Hillsborough Bays, Florida. Marshes were created along shorelines and nesting habitat provided on island surfaces. Marsh planting and limited bioengineering (riprap) was provided for physical protection. Smooth cordgrass sprigs, with mangrove seed pods were planted in the marsh stand. State of Florida and a local consulting firm have conducted the monitoring. Jacksonville District, South Atlantic Division

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Island habitat Hart-Miller Island CDF MD 1980s silt, sand Confined Disposal Facility Hart and Miller Islands in Chesapeake Bay near Baltimore Channel Long wind fetch across Chesapeake Bay, strong wave energies 1100 acres Unknown CDF to be used as a recreational site when completed. A riprap dike was used for protection. Vegetation of site was natural colonization. Intensive pre-, during, and post-project monitoring was conducted by the State of Maryland on water quality, soils, and other parameters. Site has progressed from connection of the two islands, to two cells being filled, to fresh marsh vegetation colonizing the cells. Considerable wildlife use occurring, including nesting by gulls. A long-term management plan has been agreed upon by all agencies, and is part of a state law. Use cannot change from recreation and habitat. South Cell is filled, and concept plan approved. North Cell dikes were raised to 44 feet to hold dredged sediment until Poplar Island site completed. Baltimore District, North Atlantic Division

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.,

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of
Capping Historical Area Remediation Site NJ 1997 dredged sediment ocean disposal near Sandy Hook, within the inner New York Bight (N/I) During the period from HARS designation in 1997 to 31 October 2000, 13 dredging projects (approximately 4.3 million cubic yards of dredged sediment) have been used to remediate the HARS. (N/I) Clean sediment dredged from the New York and New Jersey Harbor is used to cover existing contaminated sediments at the designated Historic Area Remediation Site. The capping of contaminated sediments with cleaner sediments dredged from the Harbor that satisfy the criteria of the Ocean Dumping Act. Placement of this sediment at the HARS will serve to remediate the site by reducing impacts to acceptable levels and improving habitat conditions for bottom-dwelling organisms. The Site Management and Monitoring Plan (SMMP) for the HARS was developed for management of ocean dredged sediment disposal sites. The SMMP provides guidelines to monitor placement activities, assess the progress of remediation, analyze environmental conditions, and address potential environmental issues. See links. New York District

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Wetland habitat Queen Bess Island LA 1980s silt, sand (N/I) Gulf Intracoastal Waterway Barge and boat wakes, limited wind fetch, some natural wave energies Eight acres $70,156 per acre Maintenance dredged sediment was used for marsh creation and pelican nesting island expansion. Vegetation occurred via natural colonization although vegetation is not encouraged on nesting areas. All monitoring was done by the New Orleans District and Louisiana DNR. Dredged sediment was used to expand and preserve existing brown pelican nesting sites. Marsh was created adjacent to island to protect it from erosion. Mississippi Valley Division, New England District

(None)
Shore protection Shamrock Island TX 1998-1999 sand Hydraulic Dredge/Pipeline Shamrock Island, Corpus Christi Bay (N/I) 8,000 cy to fill 4,000 lf of Geotube for breakwater; 10,000 cy to create 5 acre wetlands; 90,000 cy beach fill to prevent adverse downdrift impacts $750,000 Project was recipient of the 1999 Coastal America Partnership Award. Beach surveys / aerial photos at 6 month intervals. Coastal Bend Bays Foundation, Galveston District, The Nature Conservancy, Texas Audubon Society, Texas General Land Office, US Fish and Wildlife Service

Moseley et al. (2000). Habitat Enhancement and Protection, Shamrock Island, Texas. Proceeding of the 13th National Conference on Beach Preservation Technology, Melbourne, FL.
Construction Sediment Processing Facility NJ 1990s (N/I) (N/I) Port of New Jersey District (N/I) Up to 500,000 cubic yards annually (N/I) OMR has developed a plan to design, build, and operate a dredged sediments processing plant in the Port District. The facility will be designed to process up to 500,000 cubic yards of sediment annually and will produce a stabilized manufactured soil. The State will contract the design and construction of the facility in another location. The sediment processing procedures, tipping fees, and sale price of the product will be dictated in the contract. This facility will ensure a supply of processed dredged sediment for roadway and brownfield projects, as well as ensure that a low-cost alternative is available for small quantity dredged sediment generators such as marinas. (N/I) Office of Maritime Resources

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Construction Sediment Decontamination Demo NJ 1990s contaminated sediment (N/I) New Jersey (N/I) Up to 500,000 cubic yards annually Anticipated to be no more than $29 per cubic yard delivered Demonstration project for decontamination of dredged sediment. OMR has been working closely with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) Decon Program for the past 4 years evaluating new sediment/dredged sediment decontamination technologies with beneficial end-use products. Decontamination technologies such as thermal destruction and soil washing have been around for years, but most applications have been for soils and only for site-specific remedial applications. In the Sediment Decontamination Technology Demonstration Program, the goal is to foster the startup of businesses that can provide cost-effective sediment decontamination on a commercial scale level (up to 500,000 cubic yards annually per facility). (N/I) Office of Maritime Resources

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Construction Savannah Brick Production GA 1990s (N/I) (N/I) Savannah (N/I) Pilot study (N/I) Dredged sediment collected from the confined disposal site at Savannah, GA. Fine clay size dredged sediment was collected from the confined disposal site at Savannah, GA. Pilot studies indicated a high quality brick could be manufactured from certain dredged sediment types. A sorting process was established on the CDF and appropriate sized sediment was collected and removed for the manufacture of brick. This sediment replaced expensive raw clay sediment that had been transported from long distances to Savannah. Not applicable Savannah District, Trans Industrial Development Group, Savannah, GA

Cousins et al. (1997). Brick manufacture from dredged material, a reality!. Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997, p. 141.
Shore protection Santa Barbara Harbor CA 1935 sand Hopper dredge downdrift of the Santa Barbara Harbor entrance Open ocean (Pacific) Volume: 200,000 cy; Length: 370 m; Width: 180 m; Thickness: 2 m; Side Slopes: 1V:23H inshore, 1V:18H offshore; Plan View: rectangular; Water Depth: 6m (N/I) Earliest recorded nearshore berm construction by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The sand bar was constructed along the 20 ft (6 m) contour off the updrift end of eroding beaches south of Santa Barbara, California. The intent of the bar was to alleviate severe coastal erosion downdrift of the harbor. The feature was exceptionally stable, but the trough between the berm and shore filled somewhat. (N/I) Los Angeles District, South Pacific Division

Beach Erosion Board. (1950). Test of Nourishment of the Shore by Offshore Deposition of Sand: Long Branch, New Jersey. Technical Memorandum No. 17, USACE.
Wetland habitat San Leandro CA (N/I) (N/I) (N/I) upland disposal site in the city of San Leandro (N/I) 172 acres Approximately $1 million total cost, as much as $18 cy As part of a mitigation package developed to satisfy regulatory requirements, the City recently developed a management plan to enable a greater range of beneficial uses for its dredged sediment. In particular, the plan had the overall purpose of enhancing the value of the Dredged Material Management Site (DMMS) as seasonal shorebird and other water bird habitat in ways that were compatible with its primary function of dredged sediment drying and temporary storage. This disposal site was reconfigured constructing new levees and removing previously deposited dredged sediment to achieve suitable elevations for habitat enhancement. (N/I) City of San Leandro, CA, Environmental Science Associates, San Francisco, CA

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Washington, D.C.
Nearshore placement Sand Island Bar AL 1987 sand (0.22 mm) Hopper dredge south of Dauphin Island and west of the Mobile Bay entrance Open ocean (Gulf of Mexico) Volume: 464,000 cy; Length: 6000 ft; Width (crest): 150 ft; Thickness: 6 ft; Side Slopes: 1V:25H; End Slopes: 1V:20H to 1V:50H; Plan View: L-shaped; Water Depth: 20 ft (N/I) 6.5 km south of the eastern end of Dauphin Island and 2.5 km west of the Mobile Bay entrance channel. This test, conducted in 1987 offshore of Sand Island, Alabama, expands experience using fine sand in intermediate depths, i.e., below depths where onshore transport has already been demonstrated, but shallow enough for potential movement. The major question is whether sand at this depth will be retained in the nearshore zone or lost seaward. The berm showed indications of migrating northwest. It was too far offshore to directly influence beach volumes, but the sand was apparently becoming part of the littoral system. Parameters measured included bathymetry, sediment samples, side-scan sonar. Mobile District, South Atlantic Division

Hands and Bradley. (1990). Results of Monitoring the Disposal Berm at Sand Island, Alabama. Technical Report. TR-DRP-90-2. U.S. Army ERDC, Vicksburg, MS. PDF
Wetland habitat Sabine National Wildlife Refuge LA 1996 (N/I) pump along west side of Calcasieu Ship Channel (N/I) 72 acres; 928,000 cubic yards $590,000 National Wildlife Refuge along west side of Calcasieu Ship Channel, Cameron Parish (approx. 25 miles south of Lake Charles). The newly created and protected wetlands will provide habitat for many animal species, including the endangered Kemp's ridley sea turtles, sea and shore birds, and fish dependant on a marine habitat. Shallow water habitat will be restroed benefiting all species. (N/I) Louisiana Department of Natural Resources, Mississippi Valley Division

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Washington, D.C.
Wetland habitat Southwest Pass LA 1970s silt, sand (N/I) below Head of Passes on the western side of Southwest Pass Several miles of westerly wind fetch Approximately 10,000 acres of new marsh since 1974 In 1970's, an additional $.50 per CY; costs are increasing to an additional $1 to $2 per CY as placement areas are further and further away from channel. Marsh restoration started 1974; continued every year during maintenance dredging operations. Unconfined dredged sediment placed at sub-tidal elevations was used for restoration of subsided and eroded intertidal marsh on the western side of the Southwest Pass. No island protection was constructed. No plantings were done. Sites were naturally colonized in a variety of plants within 3-5 years, including smooth cordgrass, big cordgrass, saltmeadow cordgrass, other common Louisiana coastal plants. Included in a couple high spots were common reed which would be displaced by succession and subsidence. Monitoring using remote sensing and older aerial photos, backed up by ground truthing data collected along permanent transect lines in various age marshes. Mississippi Valley Division, New Orleans District

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Washington, D.C.
Wetland habitat Warm Springs CA 1980s silt (N/I) adjacent to south San Francisco Bay north of San Jose Long fierce northerly wind fetch and strong wave energies. Over 100 acres (N/I) Dredged sediment and structures were used for marsh restoration, water stability, and intertidal elevations. Dikes and culverts were used for physical protection. Vegetation occurred via natural colonization. Pre-construction baseline data were collected by California DNR and the private consultant who built the project (Phil Williams and Associates). Long-term monitoring data are limited, but are being collected by state agencies. Project consists of several wetland areas connected to the Bay by tidal culverts, but protected from wave energy by dikes. Nature trails, bird watching, etc. are part of the project design. This site receives considerable recreational use. San Francisco District, South Pacific Division

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Wetland habitat Windmill Point VA 1970s silt, sand (N/I) at Windmill Point east of Hopewell along James River Strong river and flood currents, 3-ft tides, several mile wind fetch from west. Fifteen acres Approximately $1.00 per cy for construction. In 1973-1974; first marsh designed/built by USACE; site agreed to by State-Federal working group. Maintenance dredged sediment was used to create a freshwater intertidal marsh. Engineering features included dredged sediment, temporary sand dike as breakwater plnatings. Grasses and forbs were planted on the dike. Natural colonization occurred on the island interior before the site could be planted. Pre-, during, and post-construction monitoring by Waterways Experiment Station and its contractors (University of Virginia, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Old Dominion University, and Environmental Concern Inc., others). Dike failed but a successful shallow water habitat formed. Norfolk District, North Atlantic Division

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Wetland habitat Winyah Bay SC 1970s silt (N/I) off Middle Ground Island in Winyah Bay near Georgetown River currents, several mile wind fetch, close to a very strong tidal area (the Gorge) that provides the inlet to Winyah Bay. More than 150 acres in 1996 Approximately $1.25 per cy Started in 1974. Maintenance dredged sediment was placed adjacent to a 60-year-old dredged sediment island to create a marsh. Natural colonization of smooth cordgrass and saltmarsh bulrush was allowed. No physical protection was constructed. Limited monitoring was done by Waterways Experiment Station in 1989. Different ages of the marsh were determined and studied using remote sensing. Each deposit of dredged sediment appeared to colonize with smooth cordgrass within 3 years of being deposited; some areas remain large very productive mudflats. Different age Anew marsh@ were compared to a much older natural marsh across the channel (no new marshes in South Carolina available for comparison). Marsh and mudflat macrobenthos, fisheries, vegetation, wildlife, insects, and soils data were collected and analyzed. Charleston District, South Atlantic Division

Alphin and Posey. (2000). Long-term trends in vegetaion dominance and infaunal community composition in created marshes. Wetlands Ecology and Management 8:317-325.,

LaSalle et al. (1991). Evaluation of the flora and fauna of a Spartina
Island habitat Wine Island LA 1991 silt, sand (N/I) Wine Island, Houma Navigation Canal, Terrebonne Parish Barge and boat wakes, natural wave energies, subsidence. 21 acres $47,952 per acre Dredged sediment was used for restoration of a portion of the eroding barrier /subsiding barrier island system in southern Louisiana. The 6000 CY of silt and sand dredged sediment was contained by a rock dike. Smooth cordgrass and other typical marsh grasses were planted. Pre-, during, and post-project monitoring conducted by New Orleans District and Louisiana DNR, with input from other agencies. Mississippi Valley Division, New Orleans District

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Wetland habitat Weaver Bottoms MN 1988 sand (N/I) Upper Mississippi River National Fish and Wildlife Refuge River currents, long wind fetch across Pool 5 of the Upper Mississippi River Lock and Dam System. 5,000 acres $2 to $4 less than all other dredged sediment placement options, with substantial cost savings over life of project. Dewatered maintenance dredged sediment was used for freshwater marsh and riparian restoration. The dredged sediment itself was used for structural support and erosion control. Pre-, during, and post-construction monitoring was a joint effort of the St. Paul District, FWS, State of Minnesota, and State of Wisconsin. Monitoring includes water quality, fish, vegetation, wildlife, and other parameters. Dredged sediment was used to plug eroded channels that were causing washout of fresh marsh within Weaver Bottoms, and to build waterfowl nesting islands that would also help break up wind fetch. Mississippi Valley Division, St. Paul District

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Wetland habitat Texas City Dike TX 1978-1979 silt, sand (N/I) northeast side of Texas City Dike, Galveston Bay Long wind fetch from north, both natural and boat-generated wave energies. Less than five acres. Approximately $1.25 per cy Dredged sediment was used for marsh creation. A rubble breakwater was put into place after the marsh was planted and established to stabilize the marsh. Smooth cordgrass was planted. Initial monitoring was done by Galveston District. Long-term monitoring was done by Waterways Experiment Station (ERDC). Use of the little marsh by fish and shellfish, and clapper rail and other birds were recorded. The marsh fringes are used as fishing spots. Public reaction has been favorable. Galveston District, Southwestern

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Aquatic habitat Twitch Cover Seagrass Plantings MD 1989 sand (N/I) Twitch Cove, Chesapeake Bay Long wind fetch, and wave energies from all sides. Less than 5 acres Estimated $1.50/cy Energy source from long wind fetch, and wave energies from all sides. Protected by longard (geotextiles) tubes surrounding the site. Pre-, during, and post-planting monitoring by Baltimore District, ERDC, and NMFS. Eelgrass bed planted behind protection of longard tubes. Baltimore District, North Atlantic Division

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Wetland habitat Times Beach CDF NY (N/I) silt, sand (N/I) Lake Ontario near Buffalo Wind fetch and some wave energies broken by the confined disposal facility (CDF) dike. Over 25 acres (N/I) Dredged sediment was used for wetland creation. Vegetation occurred via natural colonization. This project was originally constructed to hold dredged sediment from the nearby channel, but after one maintenance dredging cycle, Buffalo District built a new CDF due to the high level of wildlife use on the site and a request from the Audubon Society to have the site made into a bird sanctuary. Pre-project monitoring was minimal; post-project monitoring has been conducted by the local Audubon Society chapter and by Waterways Experiment Station. Buffalo District, Great Lakes and Ohio River Division

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Recreation Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway, MS, AL MS 1980s silt, sand Confined Disposal Sites along Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway Minimal 14,000 acres of confined disposal sites, part of 160,400 acres overall of wetland and habitat mitigation for dredge and fill during construction of the project. Unknown, but finished below project estimated costs ahead of schedule. West MS and southwest AL connecting the Tennessee River through the Yellow Creek divide to the Tombigbee River. Dredged sediment sites were restored and intensively managed for waterfowl habitat, food crops for wildlife, reforestation, and other wildlife-related activities. Vegetation varies from site to site, but in general includes management systems where marsh seeds are planted and food made available through water level manipulation, or ponding for overwintering waterfowl, or planting of food crops especially for deer, turkey, quail, small mammals, and songbird Engineering monitored by Mobile District and Waterways Experiment Station (ERDC); biological monitoring joint effort of Mobile District, ERDC, Mississippi State University, Mississippi Dept. of Wildlife Conservation, and Alabama DNR. The entire TTWW project includes 72,400 acres of Corps-owned land that is intensively managed for wildlife and fisheries, 14,000 of which are dredged sediment sites. This is a showcase project, with heavy recreational potential and utilization. An extensive blue bird and wood duck/hooded merganser nesting box program has been in place for nearly 15 years. Great Lakes and Ohio River Division, Mobile District, Nashville District, South Atlantic Division

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Shore protection West Bay TX 1992-1993 silty sand, silt (N/I) West Bay, Gulf Intracoastal Waterway Barge and boat wakes, some wind fetch and natural wave energies. Currently approximately 40 acres in a test project, could expand considerably with maintenance dredged sediment. Estimated $1.00 per cy; geotextiles were additional expenses at estimated $10.00 per linear foot installed. Maintenance dredged sediment was used for stabilization of eroded shoreline. Engineering and bioengineering techniques were coupled with marsh plantings for stabilization. Combinations of geotextiles, concrete/ stones, erosion control mat, and plant rolls were used. Smooth cordgrass was planted in and behind the protective sediment. Silty sand and silt depending upon where the dredged sediment was obtained Pre-construction data collected by Waterways Experiment Station (ERDC) and Texas A&M University (TAMU); construction monitoring was done by ERDC and Galveston District; post-construction data were collected by ERDC, TAMU, and Galveston District. Galveston District, Southwestern

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Horticulture Toledo Harbor OH 1996 fine grained (N/I) Toledo Harbor CDF (N/I) 550 cu yd of topsoil $10,000 Toledo Harbor CDF, Cell 1; University of Toledo; Toledo Botanical Gardens. Dried dredged sediment from the CDF was excavated, blended with yardwaste and biosolids and loaded into trucks. Topsoil was manufactured from dredged sediment, city of Toledo waste and N-Viro Class A biosolids. The biosolids we were produced at Toledo's sewage treatment facility. A rotary screen was used to blend ingredients. Blended topsoil was loaded into trucks and delivered to the University of Toledo and the Toledo Botanical Gardens. The topsoil was used to landscape the front entrance to the University of Toledo and in soil beds at the entrance to the Toledo Botanical Gardens. Both the University of Toledo and the Toledo Botanical Gardens have monitored and maintained the areas. Buffalo District

Cadet et al. (1997). Manufactured Soil from Toledo Harbor Dredged Material and Organic Waste Materials. USACE ERDC, Vicksburg, MS.,

Sturgis et al. (2001). Evaluation of Toledo Harbor Dredged Material for Manufactured Soil Phase I: Greenhou
Agriculture New York/New Jersey Harbor Demonstration NJ 1996 fine grained clamshell Port of Newark (N/I) 30 cu yd of topsoil $95,000 Clamshelled wet dredged sediment from Newtown Creek was blended with yardwaste and biosolids and loaded into demonstration plots. Topsoil was manufactured topsoil from contaminated NY/NJ Harbor dredged sediment, Scotts Company yardwaste and Bionsoil" Class A biosolids, lime and fertilizer. The ingredients were blended with Proctex" pugh mill and placed in 6ft x 6 ft x 5 ft lined cells equipped with leachate collection. Different plant species were seeded in replicated cells to demonstrate phyto-stabilization, phyto- extraction of metals and phyto-degradation of organic contaminants. Only salt was detected in leachate. Leachate, soil content and plant growth were monitored for 15 months by USACE Waterways Experiment Station and NJ Institute of Technology. New York District

Lee et al. (1997). Manufactured Soil from Contaminated NY/NJ Harbor Dredged Material . USACE ERDC, Vicksburg, MS.,

Sturgis et al. (2001). Evaluation of Manufactured Soil Using Dredged Material from New York/ New Jersey Harbor Newton Cree
Agriculture Jacksonville Harbor FL 2000 sand, silt, clay (N/I) Bartram Island, Jacksonville (N/I) Greenhouse bench-scale tests $75,000 Dried dredged sediment was blended with storm debris or wastepaper fiber and chicken manure to manufacture topsoil. Screening tests were conducted to manufacture topsoil from sand, silt or clay blended with storm debris or wastepaper fiber and chicken manure. Optimum blends using each sand, silt or clay textured dredged sediment were determined. Seed germination and plant growth were monitored for 8 weeks by USACE ERDC EL. Jacksonville District

Lee et al. (2000). Evaluation of Manufactured Soil Using Dredged Material from Bartram Island CDF in Jacksonville, FL. Technical Report. ERDC/EL SR-00-X, U.S. Army ERDC, Vicksburg, MS.
Agriculture Mobile River and Harbor AL 1997 sand, silt, clay (N/I) Pinto, North and South Blakley, and Mud Lake CDFs (N/I) Greenhouse bench-scale tests $10,000 Dried dredged sediment from each CDF was blended with yardwaste and biosolids. Screening tests were conducted to manufacture topsoil using sandy, silt and clay dredged sediment from Pinto, North and South Blakley, and Mud Lake 7 CDFs, yardwaste and biosolids. Seed germination and plant growth were monitored for 8 weeks by USACE Waterways Experiment Station. Mobile District

Sturgis et al. (1997). Manufactured Soil from Mobile, AL Harbor Dredged Material. USACE, WES, Vicksburg, MS. page 46.,

Sturgis et al. (2002). Evaluation of Manufactured Soil Using Dredged Material from Confined Placement Facilities in Mobi
Construction Wilmington NC 2004 sand (N/I) Eagle Island CDF (N/I) Greenhouse bench-scale tests and field demonstration (1,400 cu yd.) $15,000 Dried dredged sediment from Eagle Island CDF was blended with storm debris and swine manure biosolids. Screening tests were conducted to manufacture topsoil using sandy dredged sediment from Wilmington, NC Harbor Eagle Island CDF, storm debris and swine manure biosolids. A soccerfield will be constructed at the New Hanover County Soccerplex with dredged sediment derived topsoil. Seed germination and plant growth were monitored for 8 weeks by USACE Waterways Experiment Station. Wilmington District

Sturgis and Lee. (1997). Manufactured Soil from Eagle Island CDF, Wilmington, NC Harbor Dredged Material, Storm Debris and Biosolids. USACE, ERDC, Vicksburg, MS.
Wetland habitat Atchafalaya River Delta LA 1970s-1980s silt intermittent Mouth of the Atchafalaya River River currents, some barge wakes within the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, some wave energy from the Gulf Multiple sites of several acres each Estimated $2.00 per cy Maintenance dredged sediment used for marsh and bird island nourishment. Vegetation was allowed to colonize naturally (in case of bird islands, vegetation is not encouraged). Very limited. General Observations were done by New Orleans District and Louisiana DNR personnel Mississippi Valley Division, New Orleans District

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.,

USACE. (1987). Beneficial Uses of dredged material. Engineer Manual 1110-2-5026, USACE, Office of the Chief of
Wetland habitat Atkinson Island TX 1993 silt, sand (N/I) upper reaches of Houston Ship Channel Southeastern wind fetch >50 acres (N/I) This was a wetland creation demonstration project by the Port of Houston, Texas. The dredged sediment dike was faced with a variety of erosion control test techniques, including geotextile tubes, paratex, erosion control fabric, and others. An improved strain of smooth cordgrass (developed by Natural Resources Conservation Service, USDA) was planted. Engineering monitoring by Gahagan and Bryant Associates Inc.; biological monitoring was a joint effort between NRCS FWS, Gahagan and Bryant Associates Inc., and Port of Houston. Galveston District, Southwestern

Landin. (1997). Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997.
Island habitat Baptiste Collette LA 1977-1995 (N/I) Pipeline Plaquemines Parish (N/I) 700,000 to 900,000 cubic yards annually from 1977 through 1994. Over 542 acres of habitat have been created. (N/I) Initial sediment placement in 1977; subsequent projects through 1995. Constructed six bird islands. The bird islands form a chain about 2.5 miles long that parallels the seaward end of the Baptiste Collette Bayou channel. Created habitat from the dredged sediment includes marsh, shrub/scrub, bare land, and beach. Seventy-six species of salt-freshwater plants have been documented. The bird islands at Baptiste Collette have been nominated as a United States Important Bird Area because they provide essential habitat to significant numbers of breeding Caspian and gull-billed terns and roosting pelicans. Baptiste Collette is a diverse project that demonstrates the early uses of dredged sediment for wetland development in 1977 to placement based on scientific data gathered through the implementation of a Beneficial Use of Dredged Material Monitoring Program with the Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge in 1993. (N/I) New Orleans District

Gunn. (1997). MS River outlets, Venice, LA: Wetland development and bird island development at Baptiste Collette. Proceedings, International Workshop on Dredged Material Beneficial Uses. Baltimore, MD July 28-August 1, 1997, pp. 50-51.
Construction Bronx NY 2001 sand (N/I) Van Cortlandt Park (N/I) Greenhouse bench-scale tests and field demonstration (7,000 cu yd.) $25,000 Dredged sediment from Van Cortlandt Park Lake was blended with yardwaste and zoo manure. Screening tests were conducted to manufacture topsoil using sandy dredged sediment from the park lake, yardwaste and zoo manure. Two soccerfields were constructed with the dredged sediment derived topsoil. Seed germination and plant growth were monitored for 8 weeks by USACE Waterways Experiment Station. City of New York, NY

Lee et al. (2001). Evaluation of the Beneficial Use of Van Cortlandt Lake Sediment for Manufactured Topsoil. USACE ERDC, Vicksburg, MS.
Forestry Vintondale- trees and shrubs PA (N/I) sand (N/I) AMD & ART Park (N/I) Greenhouse bench-scale tests and field demonstration (40 cu yd.) $10,000 Dried dredged sediment from Donora, PA CDF was blended with wastepaper fiber, Bionsoil processed cow manure, lime, fertilizer and acid coal mine bony residual into topsoil. Screening tests were conducted to manufacture topsoil using sandy dredged sediment from Donora, PA CDF, wastepaper fiber, Bionsoil cow manure, lime, fertilizer and acid coal mine bony to manufacture a topsoil for planting 5,000 trees and shrubs. An abandoned acid coal mine brownfield site was converted into a recreational and wildlife park for the community of Vintondale, PA. Seed germination and plant growth were monitored for 8 weeks by USACE Waterways Experiment Station. Pittsburgh District

Lee, C.R. (2001). Manufactured Soil Field Demonstrations on Brownfields and Abandoned Minelands. DOER Technical Notes Collection. ERDC-TN-DOER-C25. U.S. Army ERDC, Vicksburg, MS. PDF
Wetland habitat Vintondale- wetlands PA 2001 sand (N/I) AMD & ART Park (N/I) Greenhouse bench-scale tests and field demonstration (40 cu yd.) $10,000 Dried dredged sediment from Donora, PA CDF was blended with wastepaper fiber, Bionsoil processed cow manure, lime, fertilizer and acid coal mine bony residual into an artificial substrate for a constructed wetland. Screening tests were conducted to manufacture artificial soil using sandy dredged sediment from the Donora, PA CDF, wastepaper fiber, Bionsoil cow manure, lime, fertilizer and acid coal mine bony. The manufactured soil served as substrate for an one acre constructed wetland. An abandoned acid coal mine brownfield site was converted into a recreational and wildlife park for the community of Vintondale, PA. Seed germination and plant growth were monitored for 8 weeks by USACE Waterways Experiment Station. Pittsburgh District

Lee et al. (2007). Manufactured Soil Field Demonstration for Constructing Wetlands to Treat Acid Mine Drainage on Abandoned Minelands. DOER Technical Notes Collection. ERDC TN-DOER-D9.U.S. Army ERDC, Vicksburg, MS.
Construction Vintondale- athletic fields PA 2003 sand (N/I) AMD & ART Park (N/I) Greenhouse bench-scale tests and field demonstration (40 cu yd.) (N/I) Dried dredged sediment from Donora, PA, CDF, was blended with yard waste, N-Viro processed chicken manure, lime, fertilizer and acid coal mine bony residual into topsoil. Screening tests were conducted to manufacture topsoil using sandy dredged sediment from the Donora, PA CDF, yardwaste, N-Viro chicken manure, lime, fertilizer and acid coal mine Bony. The topsoil was used to construct a soccer field and a baseball field. An abandoned acid coal mine brownfield site was converted into a recreational and wildlife park for the community of Vintondale, PA. Seed germination and plant growth were monitored for 8 weeks by RSMT, LLC. Pittsburgh District, RSMT, LLC, US Soccer Foundation

AMD&ART, Inc. (1999). Transforming Environmental Liabilities into Community Assets. The Bottleworks, (November 1999), Johnstown, PA.
BU Project State Event Sediment Placement Location Energy Project Size Cost Comments Monitoring Partners References